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Download Building Construction: Metric Volume 1 By ronaldweinland.info – Building Construction Metric Volume 1 which was written by W.R. McKay was published by. Building ConstructionMetric Volume 1 by ronaldweinland.info - ronaldweinland.info - Ebook download as Building Construction Illustrated - 4th ronaldweinland.info . of the Department of Building and Structural Engineering in the VOLUME ONE Manchester. Download Building ConstructionMetric Volume 1 by ronaldweinland.info - civilenggforall. pdf BUILDING CONSTRUCTION VOLUME ONE METRIC.
EX,Hllpll"s of stH;h alt "arch" are shown at -', Fig. At K a 7S mm by 10 mm stcel flat bar set: Fig. For spans exceeding mm it is n. It is a common practice for small spans to bed brick lintels directly upon the heads of the door and window frames; such frames should be set back for not more than 25 mm from the external face of the wall see c, Fig. It should course with the adjacent brickwork as shown at 0, Fig. Additional examples are shown in Figs. The lintel may be cast in situ in position or precast formed and allowed to set before being fixed ; the former is cast in a wood mould with]2 to 38 mm thick bottom and sides which is removed when the concrete has set.
A Free National Construction Code for. Fun blocks easy to connect children can copy a design from the box or just create their own colourful construction the 85 piece safari case comes with basic building blocks as well as safari. Barry Construction Of Buildings 2nd Edition. Skip to content Skip. McKay ;. Thumbnail [View as table] [View as grid] Title, Author.. Tools used in building construction,. Reinforced Concrete Structures- Volume 2 by Dr. Punmia- Ashok.. Part of the RICS NRM suite, this volume provides detailed rules for the measurement and description of building works for the purpose of obtaining tender prices..
McKay and a great selection of similar Used,. This bundle includes both Volume 1 and Volume 2 of the International Building.. Such piers may be isolated or detached or they may be attached to walls.
Examples in English bond are shown at Detached pillars to which gates are hung are often finished with a coping as illustrated in Fig. A plan of a portion of a building in which piers are employed is shown at A. P and Q. NATE H.. The short continuous vertical joints shown in the plan M of the 2-hrick pier can be avoided if bevelled closers see broken lines are used as an alternative. K and L and the corresponding elevations D. The only continuous vertical joints are those shown by thick lines at K.
English Bonded Detached Piers see plans J. M and N. N A Al TEil. As is implied. Thc stopped end details in Figs. I Thnc h. In hrdcr 10 m'lim: The simplest form is mm thick having two loz'5 mm thick It'..
The object of the recess will be appreciated on reference to P. UTC in double Flemish hond. The"" details are shown in both English and double Flemish bond.
Examples of buttress eappings arc illustrated in Fig. These details may he associated with the window z shown at A. Th" h"i! S the.
There arc three forms of jambs. Hand J.. Jambs with liZ mm recesses are shown in English bond at K. A gate pier of the attached type is shown at A. Buttresses are piers which are provided to resist thrusts from roof trusses or to strengthen boundary walls.
The piers and adjacent walling shown at II. The corresponding courses in double Flemish bond are shown a Ie. In sheltered place. Rebated jambs having mm outer reveals and 56 mm recesses in I. Land M.. SSES R. CE55E5 Il. OOW F ': JJI L ". COUOE t.. T I eON". T I4lCK.. JAMB5 I" '"' I COUlt. I"'G CI. FWNT E.. Whilst slight settlement or subsidence of a building may. Similar gaps should also be provided at the base of the wall below the d.
They are put in the bed joints to span the cavity. The ground which receives the buitding is known as a natural foundation. Where the cavity is bridged as at lintels. At the jambs of openings the vcrtical spacing of the ties is reduced to mm. An artificial foundation may consist of: I a concrete bed only see A. B and D. These are shown in Fig. As the nature of the soil varies considerably it follows that the capacit ' of the soil to support loads is also variable.
The base of the wall is normally constructed as at A. Hence it is not always possible to adopt a unifonn sitt of foundation for the whole building. The ties used to strengthen and aid the stability of the wall are of several kinds. It is important to keep the cavity free of mortar droppings which would collect on the ties and make a bridge for dampness to the inner leaf. The dt'"tail at E shows the d. T he bottom of the cavity can be cleaned out if temporary gaps arc left at the hase of the wall.
Type I is the most common. The bearinj: This action is eliminated if the cavity at the base of the wall is filled with fine concrete to a distance mm below the d. The object of a foundation is to distribute the weight to be carried over a sufficient area of bearing surface so as to prevent the subsoil from spreading and to avoid unequal settlement of the structure.
E WAll 'j ": The requirements of many local authorities in respect to foundations cspeciaHy for small buildings which transmit relatively light loads have been modified considerably within recent years. For a two-stOrey house the wal! IV is used. M I ClAI I "M. Nt MO. ICI5-' [f-- J. TA" 1 I. J 1- If-- HOOl. CON MH.
The one at A shows a typical strip foundation on loose sand where the minimum width is mm for a mm wall. Examples of foundations are given in Fig. The rule illustrated is a useful one and I From 1 January The one at c illustrates the use of a course of brick footings which were often used in earlier days when cement was not the reliable product it is today to give a gradual spread of the load.
N H"""""1. At a depth of mm this action is normally absent in the U. The type at D has to be used on soft clay which is liable to expansion and contraction due to the variation in water content. IV for different subsoils and loadings.
The depth of the foundations varies with the character of the subsoil and the relative importance of the work. I t is not necessary to 'exceed mm depth in many situations; this is the minimum to prevent damage by frost. All brickwork below the ground level should be built in cement mortar in order to increase its stability, and engineering bricks are preferred. The construction of the floor shown by broken lines at c is described on pp.
S8 to Pier Foundations. Whilst footings may be dispensed with and the foundation designed in accordance with the Building Regulations, it should be noted that brick footings serve a useful purpose in gradually transmitting the concentrated load from the pier to theconcrete. Timbering to foundation trenches is described on pp.
A damp building is unhealthy to those who occupy it, it causes damage to the contents of the building, and it gradually impairs the parts of the structure affected. There are various causes of dampness in walls, the chief of -Which are: I moisture rising up the walls from the adjacent ground, 2 rain passing down from the tops of walls, 3 rain beating against the walls which may absorb the water to such an extent as to show dampness on the internal faces and 4 the absorption of water from defective rain-water pipes.
H e will appreciate that brickwork below the Jlround level will draw the moisture from the ground and may impan it from one course to another for a COn,idenoble height. To prevent water absorbed from the soil rising and causing dampness in the wall and any adjacent woodwork and plaster, a continuous layer of an impervious material is provided.
This layer is known as a horizontal damp proof course d. The position of such a course varies from ISO to mm above the ground level see sections in Fig. The level should not be less than ,somm otherwise soil forming flower beds and the like may be deposited against the external face of a wall at a greater height than the impervious layer and thus water may be transmitted from it to the wall above the damp proof course.
Some of the materials used to form horizontal damp proof courses are: Fine grit in varying proportions is added and completely incorporated with the asphalt Jlt a vey high temperature, after which it is cast into blocks weighing about 25 kg each. These are received on the site, when they are re-heated and applied in the following manner: The heated material is placed on the wall between the battens and finished off by means or hand floats to the top of Lilt: The asphalt is kept slightly back from the external face of the wall so that it may be pointed with cement mortar after the wall has been completed; this covers the dark line of the asphalt and assists in preventing the asphalt from being squeezed out and discolouring the brickwork, especially if it is subjected to intense action of the sun.
Asphalt forms an excellent damp proof course, it being impervious and indestructible; in addition it does not fractu re, if, on acCount of unequal settlement, cracks are caused in the brickwork. Fibrous Asphalt Felt. It is obtained in rolls, 22 m long and in various widths from 'S 10m to 9IS m: In laying it in position, a thin layer of mortar is spread on the brickwork and the damp proof course is bedded on it. It should be lapped 75 mm where joints occur and lapped full width at all crossings and angles.
It should be pointed in cement mortar. This type of damp proof course is extensively used, it being easily handled and, provided it is adequately impregnated with bitumen and obtained from a reputable manufacturer, it forms a thoroughly reliable damp-resisting material. Some of the cheaper varieties are practically worthless; they are comparatively thin and both the bases and the bitumen are of inferior quality; such should be avoided.
It s not suitable for certain classes of stone walling. District Masonry described on p. A layer of mortar is spread over the brickwork, upon which the first layer of slates is bedded with bUIt joints; more mortar is spread over these slates and the second layer of slates is laid in position so as to form a half lap bond with the first course of slatcs when the slates are said to" break joint " ; the next course of brickwork is then bedded in cement mortar on the top layer of slates.
The slates must extend the. It is a very efficient damp proof course and has been used on important buildinga. This damp proof course i. It consIsts of a layer of sheet lead see Chapter VI which weighs from 3 to 8 lb. The mortar does not adhere to it readily unless the lead is well scored scratched. It is an excellent damp proof course, eapedally for damp Sites, and whilst It IS more expensive than the above, it is more durable.
The copper should be at least 0' mm thick, lapped or jointed as described for lead, and embedded in lime or cement mortar. Blue Staffordshire Brnks. P astic. It is made of black polythene, 0'5 or I mm thick in the usual walling widths and roll lengths of 30 m.
The area of a building below wood floors must be covered with an impervious material1 in order to exclude dampness. The material used may be concrete or asphalt. The concrete should be well surfaced with the back of the shovel known as " spade finished " ; its top surface must not be below the level of the ground outside the wall of the building.
Surface concrete Is shown in Fig. Besides excluding dampness, surface concrete prevents the growth of vegetable matter and the admission of ground air.
The site concrete adjoining the walls may be finished as shown at c, Fig. Wider offsets than these may be required to support Boor joists, roof timbers, and the like. A broken vertical section through a portion of such a wall is shown at A, Fig. The mm offsets support horizontal wood members called wall plates which receive the ends of the floor joists see p. The plan at B, Fig. In the latter the increased thickness of the wall at the base to form the offset is continuous for the full length of the wall, whereas at B the wall plate rests upon small piers which are usually not more than mm apart.
The foundation for pier 0 is strengthened if the site concrete is formed to occupy the space at w. They are constructed to support floor beams, lintels, etc. As a load carried by a corbel tends to overturn the wall, certain precautions arc taken to ensure a stable structure;! The second cause of dampness stated on p. Thus, in the case of boundary walls, the damp proof course may be placed immediately under the coping see Figs.
Similarly, a horizontal d. Vertical damp proof courses which are necessarf to exclude dampness in basement, etc. I, Vol. I Horizontal slate damp proof courses are used in both the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals 11 Liverpool. In addition, lead and blue Staffordshire briCks are uted in. Despite the change to metnc uOlu,! I Certain mortars hpecu,l1y cement mortan, act upon lead II. The depth of soil removed variel from I So to mm and the Ille concrete IS laid on the exposed surface.
The omiuion of the concrete has been a frequent cause of dry rot see p. The corbels shown at L, M and N aTe continuous and that at 0 with the sketch at p is an example of an isolated or non-continuous corbel. The latter is used to support concentrated loads as transmitted from large floor beams and the stone pad is provided to distribute the load more effectively. Oversailing Courses. Simple examples of brick oversailing courses are shown at E, Fig.
Stone cornices etc. Buttress Cappings. These arc usually completed with simple cappings see Fig. The section at Q shows the capping to consist of two courses of splay bricks of the type illustrated al Rand s, Fig. The sketch at T shows another weathered capping formed of ordinary bricks which are tilted or tumbled into the wall; the section at s shows the cutting of the bricks which is involved. As mentioned on p. Thc top or head of such an opening consists of a lintel or an arch, or both, amI the bottom of a window opening is called a sill whilst the bottom of a door opening is usually provided with one or more steps or threshold.
LINTELS A lintel is a member of wood, brick or concrete which is fixed horizontally and used to support the structure abovc the opcning. Most lintels now are of reinforced concrete. Thc b",lm wil! A further example of a wood lintel is illustrated in Fig.
Bu ilt-up lintels may be used for larger spans.. The ends of the lintels have a J 75 mm wall-hold and are bedded on mortar so as to ensure a level and firm bearing. An alternative method of forming the ends of a brick lintel. The hnt.. Hllpll"s of stH. Brick l. ON F[. Cement mortar should be used. The term joggled brick lintel is sOlnetires applied to.
The horizontal distance between and at right angles to the front and back faces. For spans exceeding mm it is n. The highest point of the extrados. Depth or lleight. The horilontal distance betwecn thc reveals of the supports. The external eurre of the arch. The lower half of the arch between the crown and a skewback.
The points at the intersection between the skewbacks and the intrados see A. If precast. Additional examples are shown in Figs. At K a 7S mm by 10 mm stcel flat bar set: An example of A hoot-shaped lintel is shown at H. The lintel may be cast in situ in position or precast formed and allowed to set before being fixed. K and 0. Cmtre or Striking Point and Radius see Fig. Sud and reinforced concrete arches of large. The ends of the bars are hooked as shown in order to increase the bond or grip between them and the concrete.
The portions of the wall which support the arch. It is a common practice for small spans to bed brick lintels directly upon the heads of the door and window frames.
Alternative methods of sueh reinforcement arc sholll1 in section at K. As concrete is comparatively weak in tension. The precast method is more often employed as the lintels can be formed in the wood moulds well in advance to allow them being sufficiently matured for fixing when required and the construction of the walling above them may be continued immediately after fixing.
The arch Fig. Springing Point. Springing I.. The horizontal line joining the two springing points. It should course with the adjacent brickwork as shown at The inner cune of t. Rim ur RinK Cvun. If this span is to be exceeded. Cutters or Malms. The projecting brickwork at the base of a wall or pier which gives the appearance oi additional strength.
Classification of Arches.. These are specially hand-moulded to the required shape and are used for good class work in the construction of purpose-made brick arches see below. The following is a brief description of these bricks. ICK AR. They can be readily sawn and rubbed to the desired shape. A series of arches. The joints between the voussoirs which radiate from the centre.
These are soft bricks. Rubber Bricks. They are used fornJUgh brick arches see p. Owing to the standardized form and size of many arches. Ordinary Standard Uncut Bricks.. There arc three varieties ofthis type. Purpose-made Bricks. Arches are classified according to a their shape. They are used in the construction of gauged arches see below. They are used in the construction of axed brick arches see p. Straight or Camber Arch.
The projecting course or courses at the upper part of a pier or other abutment to stress the springing line. The adoption of the laller ru le gives a more pleasing appearance compare A and c. The reason for the camber is to avoid the appearance of sagging which is produced if the intrados is perfectly ho rizontal and which defect would be accent uated if the slightest settlem ent occurred. Rubbcrs arc used. When the bricka are 65 mm thick at the extrados, "tiaractory jointinr retulu ir the number of vouuoin in the arch when divided by..
The btwi. The voussoirs are then sawn to shspe with each saw-cut parallel and near to the marks. They are finally dressed down to the marks by rubbin; each cut surface on a.
Iab of hard stone or by using a rasp lee p. The wall at each side of the opening will have been built and the skewbacka prepared 10 receive the nch, as indicated by the thick outline N shown" A, Fig.
When very fine joinl8 are reqUIred, each vOU5soir i. When all of the vou. It is usual to work from each. The voussoirs are kept plumb by using a rtroight-tdgt a 75 mm by:: If thicker joinll are desired, the mortar i, applied by a t,01l;el see 31, Fig. A piece of wood.
A templet or wood patttnl, ahaped IS, may be employed to ensure thlt all of the skewbacks an: The brick. ITises of the shaded bricks which are intercepted by the mark are transferred to the bricks to be shaped. A, Fig. This type of arch is frequently employed in good-class work.
Segmental Arcb. The geometrical construction for determining the centre for the curved extrados and intrados and from which the bed joints of the voussoin radiate is shown.
There are four varieties of this type of arch, i. Cross joints may be omitted if desired. This consi. Such arches were adopted when appearance wu secondary as in pJUlered walls because of their relative cheapness.
The arch was used to relieve a wood lintel of the weight of superincumbent brickwork. Jack Ar,hts. They were formerly employed when openingt exceeding , IS, which shows half elevations of two varieties. It is constructed on a centre see p. There ate four varieties of semicircular arches, i. Excepting for the shape, they are similar to the four classes of segmental arches. An example of a gauged semicircular arch is shown at E; this may have cross joints to give a " bonded face.
The rough brick class, like the segmental arch, has V. The arches illustrated in Fig. IS have been related to the small building shown in part in Fig. Sills may be of brick, brick with one or more. This type of arch is now used oaly for common work. IS, it il usual for Itudent. The tiles must be solidly and uniformly bedded in mortar otherwise they may be easily damaged.
An alternative arrangement is shown at B, Fig.
An equally satisfactory and inexpensive finish is provided by a double course of tiles bedded on the top course of the general walling see D, Fig. The tiles l1l2y be given a much greater slope if desired see E, Fig. An internal sill of one course of tiles F is shown at A, Fig. Lead-covered brick-on-edge sills are shown in Figs.
S6 and The top of a sill should have a slight fall outwards to prevent the lodgment of water; this slope is called the toeathering of a sill. That at A shows a section and part elevation of a brick sill upon two courses of tiles.
Stahdard bricks are placed on edge and are slightly tilted. The tiles vuy from 13 to 45 nun thick; those shown are 16 mm thick. Ordinary roof tiles- known as plain tiin, see Fig. Purpose-made tiles, called qudrry liln, arc thicker than plain tiles and are usually square of to mm length of aide.
The tiles are given a 2. The sill at c, Fig. The underside is grooved or'throated to throw off the water and prevent it from passing underneath the sill and staining the brickwork helow. Sills should be protected during the construction of the building, other,vise falling bricks, etc" may cause damage.
This protection is usually in the form of pieces of wood w: Stone sills are described on p. Such may consist of bricks, stone or concrete. An alternative to this, to a larger scale, is shown at D, Fig.
The height of each step, called the riser, is mm although this varies from I 15 to '75 mm. Treads should be at least mm wide so as to afford adequate foot space. The bonding of the bricks is shown on the plan and elevation. The whole of the brickwork should be in cemf. A single step in bricks on edgo is shown in Fig. The threshold at E, Fig. Unless the stone is hard it win wear badly and the arrises will be readily damaged. The edges may be slightly rounded, or splayed chamfered or-providing the stone is particularly hard-square as shown.
The treads must be well and uniformly bedded in cement mortar. This form of step is also detailed in Figs. Stone steps are shown in Figs. Similar steps may be formed. Under such cundltiuns the resultinR "xpallsion may mpidly disinteRrate the upper courses of the briekwurk. In addition, the wutcr may penetrate sufficiently to cause dampness to hedrooms, etc.
The most effective coping is that which throws the water clcar of the wall below. The fewer joints in the coping the better, and the jointing and bedding material should be ument mortar. Copings may be of bricks, bricks and tiles or slatcs, stone, terra-colla and concrete, and all must be sound and durable Some of the simpler brick copings arc shown in Fig.
They form an effective finish to a brick bt;ilding. A portion of a garden wall is shown at A, Fig. Brick-on-Edge Coping. It has a simple but satisfactory appearance , is inexpensive and is adopted extensively. Another applicat: Sometimes the bricks are placed on end, or as shown in Fig. Bulloose Coping. The double bullnose bricks are placed on edge.
The space between the stretchers about 60 mm as shown in the section should be filled solid with pieces of brick and mortar if the dwarf wall is likely to be subjected to side stresses from traffic, etc. The curved surface of the coping and the weathered or jlaunched bed joint cause water to get away quickly, and the projecting course assists water to drip clear of the wall. A similar coping, shown at G and H, consists of a top course of double bullnose bricks placed on edge upon a projecting CQurse of bats or stretchers similar to E with the intervening space filled as above described.
PointiJ1i-ruh see Similar to that at JI. Stone plinths are detailed in Fig. Hence it is advisable to provide a horizontal damp proof course on the top course of the brickwork before the coping is fixed see p.
Three forms of simple brick plinths are shown in Fig. CM Ha". Moulded Plinth.. Brick or terra-cotta saddle-back copings can also be obtained which have throated projections and resemble the stone coping shown at C.
Trowtl lee Brick-an-End Plinth see Nand o. A creasing consisting of a double course of slates in cement may be used instead of tiles.: A vertical joint in a coping is a potential weakness. Similar to that shown at A. Brick l1ammer. Leave this field empty. Welcome to EasyEngineering, One of the trusted educational blog. Check your Email after Joining and Confirm your mail id to get updates alerts.
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