Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) plays a dominant role in real-time interaction sensing It is the first of its kind and fills a gap in the technical literature as no other handbook on SPR is currently available. Download PDF. Surface plasmon resonance. P. Anton van der Merwe. 1. INTRODUCTION. 3. 2. PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF SURFACE PLASMON RESONANCE. 4. Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance: Richard B M Schasfoort, Anna J Tudos, Rob P H Kooyman, Robert M Corn, Alastair Wark, Hye Jin Lee, Erk Gedig, .
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PDF | Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) plays a dominant role in real-time interaction sensing of biomolecular binding ronaldweinland.info book is. PDF | On Sep 11, , Richard B M Schasfoort and others published Handbook of Surface Plasmon Resonance. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) plays a dominant role in real-time interaction sensing of Unlocking the potential for SPR by showing highly exciting and unique opportunities for PDF eISBN:
The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Arch Biochem Biophys See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The surface plasmon resonance SPR biosensor method is a highly sensitive, label-free technique to study the non-covalent interactions of biomolecules, especially protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. We have explored this robust biosensor platform to study the interactions of carotenoid-binding proteins and their carotenoid ligands to assess the specificity of interaction, kinetics, affinity, and stoichiometry. These characterizations are important to further study uptake and transport of carotenoids to targeted tissues such as the macula of the human eye. In this review, we present an overview of the SPR method and optimization of assay conditions, and we discuss the particular challenges in studying carotenoid-protein interactions using SPR. First demonstrated in , it measures the refractive index changes when the molecules interact at the sensing surface.
For nanoparticles, localized surface plasmon oscillations can give rise to the intense colors of suspensions or sols containing the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles or nanowires of noble metals exhibit strong absorption bands in the ultraviolet - visible light regime that are not present in the bulk metal.
This extraordinary absorption increase has been exploited to increase light absorption in photovoltaic cells by depositing metal nanoparticles on the cell surface. Related complementary techniques include plasmon waveguide resonance, QCM , extraordinary optical transmission , and dual polarization interferometry.
Unlike many other immunoassays, such as ELISA , an SPR immunoassay is label free in that a label molecule is not required for detection of the analyte. Material characterization[ edit ] Multi-Parametric Surface Plasmon Resonance , a special configuration of SPR, can be used to characterize layers and stacks of layers.
Besides binding kinetics, MP-SPR can also provide information on structural changes in terms of layer true thickness and refractive index. MP-SPR has been applied successfully in measurements of lipid targeting and rupture,  CVD-deposited single monolayer of graphene 3.
This interpretation may result in multiple possible refractive index and thickness values. However, usually only one solution is within the reasonable data range. In Multi-Parametric Surface Plasmon Resonance , two SPR curves are acquired by scanning a range of angles at two different wavelengths, which results in a unique solution for both thickness and refractive index. Metal particle plasmons are usually modeled using the Mie scattering theory.
In many cases no detailed models are applied, but the sensors are calibrated for the specific application, and used with interpolation within the calibration curve.
Layer-by-layer self-assembly[ edit ] SPR curves measured during the adsorption of a polyelectrolyte and then a clay mineral self-assembled film onto a thin ca. One of the first common applications of surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was the measurement of the thickness and refractive index of adsorbed self-assembled nanofilms on gold substrates. The resonance curves shift to higher angles as the thickness of the adsorbed film increases.
In a typical human diet, we consume over 60 carotenoids; however, only 10—15 different carotenoids actually enter the serum [ 30 , 31 ]. This means that selectivity already occurs at the first level of uptake in the gut. After absorption from the diet, carotenoids are concentrated in some tissues in a non-selective manner, but in the human macula the uptake process is highly selective for just two specific dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin.
In nature, such a high degree of selectivity is typically mediated by high affinity binding proteins. Uptake and transport of macular carotenoids Carotenoids from the ingested food are first taken up by the intestinal mucosal cells after saponification of ester linkages to fatty acids if necessary and lipid micellization [ 32 , 33 ].
In vitro studies with caco-2 intestinal cell lines and ARPE retinal pigment epithelial cell lines have demonstrated an important the role for scavenger receptor protein B1 SR-B1 in the selective uptake of carotenoids into the gut and into the eye [ 34 ].
Along with SR-B1, an intestinal transcription factor ISX was also found to participate in carotenoid uptake by a negative feedback regulatory mechanism [ 35 , 36 ].
The circulatory carotenoid carrier proteins, which include human serum albumin HSA , high density lipoprotein HDL , low density lipoprotein LDL and very low density lipoprotein VLDL also play important roles as relatively nonspecific carotenoid carriers to target tissues [ 37 ].
Ocular carotenoid transport and binding proteins The fovea of the human macula appears as a distinct yellow spot.
They further concluded that these three carotenoids, also known as macular pigments MP , are present at the fovea in a ratio. Figure 1 shows the macula and the structures of the major carotenoids of the human retina. It has been suggested that MP enhances visual acuity and protects against light-induced oxidative damage.
The major specific carotenoid-binding proteins in the human macula have been identified as the pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase GSTP1 for zeaxanthin and steroidogenic acute regulatory domain protein 3 StARD3 for lutein [ 17 , 37 ]. Figure 2 shows possible transport of pigments between retinal pigment epithelium and retinal cells.
The thickness of the dextran hydrogel of nm is perfectly compatible with the ca. The reliable production of these high-quality sensor chips was unequivocally the basis for the successful launch of SPR instruments. Also, development proceeded on optogels for use between the prism in the optical unit of the instrument and the sensor chip.
The optogel ensures optical contact with the prism, allowing simple replacement of the sensor chip. Introduction to Surface Plasmon Resonance 11 1.
Since the early s, producers have been struggling to meet the standards set by Biacore. Data of the reference spot could be used for signal correction.
With the introduction of Biacore it also became possible to monitor directly interactions of small molecule analytes reacting with immobilized protein ligands . The instrument was compatible with the Biacore sensor chip. In , the development of the IBIS-iSPR instrument, with the scanning angle principle, resulted in the required reliability and accuracy for microarray imaging of multiple biomolecular interactions The potency of the instrument is demonstrated in Chapter 7.
Biacore X, a two-spot instrument introduced in , was followed by the Biacore in The latter was later extended with recovery tools to improve interfacing with mass spectrometry .
Biacore Q was introduced for the food analysis market in Chapter The technology is not suitable, however, to image the surface. In Chapter 3, other Biacore instruments T and X are described.
After restyling, this product named Flexchip was launched in . Systems for dedicated applications have been introduced by various manufacturers as complements to all-purpose research instrumentation .
A good gauge of the success of biosensor technology is that more than publications each year include data collected from commercial biosensors. With the introduction of a number of new SPR instruments Chapter 3 and a series of novel sensor surfaces and chemistries, the impact of SPR biosensors on molecular interaction studies will continue to grow.
With improved experimental design, including SPR imaging instruments and advanced data analysis methods, high-quality data for the determination of kinetic parameters of biomolecular interaction phenomena can be obtained.
These data promise additional insights into the mechanisms of molecular binding events, which will be important for function—regulatory protein interaction studies in order to unravel the exciting processes in living species.
The book starts with a description of the physics of surface plasmons and SPR in its original form and some novel applications, for example, nanoparticle SPR. The description of SPR instrumentation and a survey of currently available commercial products from 25 companies follows in Chapter 3.
An introduction on how to obtain kinetic information from SPR measurements can be found in Introduction to Surface Plasmon Resonance 13 Chapter 4, followed by Chapter 5 illustrating kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of ligand—receptor interactions, probing the validity of this approach in pharmaceutical applications. Chapter 6 brings the reader closer to the surface architecture and chemical design strategies of SPR sensors.
An in-depth treatise on the analysis cycle and modern assay architecture, including SPR microarray imaging, is provided in Chapter 7, followed by advanced methods for SPR imaging biosensing in Chapter 8.
What are the technical reasons for the success of SPR? In SPR, the intrinsic refractive index of a protein which accumulates on the sensor surface is measured. Why should we express the sensitivity of an SPR instrument in accumulated mass per square surface and not in moles per liter?
The sample is injected and shows a higher background electrolyte refractive index. Draw the sensorgram of two analysis cycles of injection of a sample with the second analysis cycle a two times diluted sample. The response DR gives us an indication of the amount of accumulated mass per unit surface area.
How can we determine the concentration of an analyte in solution from these responses? The study of the rate constants of biomolecular interactions is an important feature of surface plasmon resonance biosensors.
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