53MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF design of ASME B metalic piping systems Advanced Piping Design (Process Piping Design Handbook) (v. II). DOWNLOAD PDF. PROCESS PIPING DESIGN HANDBOOK Volume One: The Fundamentals of piping Design Volume Two: Ailvanced piping Design. contained in ASME B, and design input specific to LANL. This Guide is not to be AWWA. M Steel Pipe-Guide for Design and Installation Valve Selection Handbook, 2nd edition, by R. W. Zappe. Acronyms and.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Genre:||Politics & Laws|
|ePub File Size:||28.69 MB|
|PDF File Size:||19.46 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
Handbook of Piping Design - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Handbook of Piping Design. Nayyar, Mohinder L. Piping handbook / [edited by] Mohinder L. Nayyar. .. Shigley & Mischke STANDARD HANDBOOK OF MACHINE DESIGN. Skousen THE. HANDBOOK. Volume One. The Fundamentals of Piping Design. Drafting and Design Methods for Process Applications. Peter Smith. Gulf Publishing Company.
Repinted courtes, of the Ameican PetroleumInstitute. The baseplate and pedestal support assembly should beadequate to limit the shaft displacement, when measuredat the coupling, to a maximum of 0. These loads represent the total effect of all external me-chanical forces that may be applied to a fully groutedpump base. An algebraic surffnationshould then be made for comparison with the moment lim-itation just given. The vendor should submit alternativecriteria for pumps larger than 12 in. Because a particular nozzle on a pump will not alwaysbe subjected to the maximum allowable resultant forceand moment simultaneously, an increase in either the re-sultant applied force or the resultant applied moment maybe made if the following limitations can be satisfied at thatnozzle:.
Are trenches or excavations adequately sloped or shored? Is a special shoring design required due to the depth or location of the excavation or trench? Have required rigging plans been prepared and approved?
Have the requirements of the approved rigging plan been reviewed with the craft who will perform the work? Is the scaffolding required to perform the work properly erected? Is a special scaffold design required to access the work location? Each individual component plus the overall system must be designed for the specified design conditions.
ASME B Process plants include petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related process plants and terminals.
These include the following:. Piping Design Data Book by Hyundai. Here's the content of the book: Explains in details all the basics of Caesar II application. One good book for both stress and layout engineers with huge important database on piping engineering. Refer this book for any data you require during your day to day piping works. The best book for a beginner. Covers the basics in simple language. Very easy to understand. The best book for a piping layout engineer.
Covers the basics of piping layout. Most of the preliminary layout ideas connected to any equipment evolves from this book. So read this book attentively for effective layout knowledge. Intent This specification covers general requirements concerning process and utility piping systems which may be included in the plant constructed by Toyo Engineering India Ltd hereinafter referred to as PMC. However, piping systems which are furnished as a regular part of proprietary or standardized equipment or package unit may be in accordance with the equipment manufacturer's standards.
The requirements for inspections and tests of piping materials, and other requirements for piping construction are not specified in this specification. Specific Job Requirements which are attached to this specification cover modifications to this specification and Customer's special or local requirements as well as specific job data pertinent to this specification.
Piping systems and piping materials shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with the applicable codes and standards. Unless otherwise specified, metric, degree Celsius and kilogram units shall be applied, but nominal sizes of piping shall be in accordance with inch system NPS. The units and numerical values given in [ ] in this specification are based on the International System of Units SI and are appended for reference.
Purpose and Application Scope. The scope included in this manual is for the normal pumps under room temperature, and it shall not be used for special pumps. Pump is a device which give pressure to fluid passing through it and discharges the. Older Posts. Subscribe to: Posts Atom. Pulsation and Vibration Control 3. Appendix J. Electronic Overspeed Detection System Considerations. Positive Displacement Pumps-Reciprocating Scope This standard covers the minimum requitements for reciprocating positive displacement pumps for use in service in the petroleum, chemical, and gas industries.
Both direct-acting and power-frame t 'pes are included. See API Standard for controlled-volume 4. Pulsation Suppression Devices. Reciprocating Pump Data Sheets. Basic Design. Selection of 'Ilpes. Table of Contents Accessories. APpendix D. Al pendix E. Pulsation Control Techniques. Parts lncluding Al pcndix F. Al l cndix -i. Positive Displacement Pumps-Controlled Volume Scope This standard covers the minimum requirements for controlledvolume positive displacement pumps for use in service in the petroleum, chemical, and gas industries.
Both packed-plunger and diaphragm types are included. Diaphragm pumps that use direct 4. Pressure-Containing Parts. Liquid End Connections. Pump Check Valves. Packed Plungers. Relief Valve Application.
Drive Bearings. Capacity Adiustment. Unit Conversion. ContTact Data. Controlled Volume Pump Data Sheets. Miscellaneous Materials. See API Standard for controlled volume pumps and stilndard for reciprocating pumps. Definition of 'lerms. Pressure Casings. External Forces and Moments. Rotating Elements. Mechanical Seals and Conventional 2. Petroleum, Chemical and Cas Industry Services Scope l his standard covers the minimum requirements for general-purpose, t,rrclosed single- and multistage gear units incorporating parallel-shaft packing.
Gears manufactured according to this standard are llrnited to the following pitchline velocities: Spiral bevel gear sets should be considered nrillched sets. Relief Valves. Inspection, Testing, and Preparation for Shipping. Con t"ract Data. Tlpical Data Sheets. Net Positive Suction Head.
Shaft Assembly Designation. Shaft Rotation. D 'namics' 2. Nameplates and Rotation Anows. Mounting l'latcs. This international standard also is applicable to seal spare parts nd can be referred to for the upgrading of existing equipment. A classification system for the seal configurations covered by this internntional standard into categodes, types, anangements, and orientallons is provided 2.
General-Purpose Gear Data Sheets. Material Specifications for General-purpose Gear Units. Refer to Appendix U for application information. Single-stage pumps of two classifications, magnetic drive pumps irrrcl canned motor pumps, are covered by this standard.
Sections 2 tlrlough 8 and 10 cover requirements applicable to both classificatlons. Section 9 is divided into two subsections and covers require ronts unique to each classification. For process services not exceeding any of the following limits, ptrchasers may wish to consider pumps that do not comply with API Slandard Vendor Drawing and Data Requitements. Referenced Specifications.
Residual Unbalance Worksheets. It is applicablc mainly for hazardous, flammable, and toxic services, where a greatel degree of reliability is required for the improvement of equrpmenr availability and the reduction of both emissions to the atmosphcrc arxl lifc-cycle scaling costs. It covers seals for pump shaft diametcrs lrorn 20 nrnr 0. Unit Responsibility. Statutorv llco r.
Referenced Publications and International Basic Design. Sealless Pump Data Sheets. Cdtical Design and Application Considerations. Nozzle and Pressure Casing Connections. Extemal Nozzles Forces and Moments. Rotor 6. Dynamics Appendix C. Circulation and Piping Schematics. Instrumentation and Protective Systems. Criteria for Piping Design. Material Class Selection Guide.
Magnet Materials for Magnetic Couplings. Procedure for Determination of Residual Unbalance. Pressure Temperature Profiles in the Recirculation Circuit. Baseplate and Soleplate Grouting. Low Temperature. Appendix M. Standard Baseplate. Appendix N. Inspector's Accessories. Appendix O. Instrumentation and Controls. Appendix Inspection, Testing and Preparation for Shipment. Appendix S. Withdrawn Summary. Appendix U. Application Information.
Specific Pump Sections. Magnetic Drive Pumps. Canned Motor Pumps. Layout 43 P. I downloadr's Checklist. Appendix Q. Appendix R. Metric to U. Units Conversion Factors. The following are based on the guidelines from several operalr r[s, based on their in-service experience.
The pump manufacturer also ',lroLr lcl be consulted to see if any special issues should be considered. Ocntrifugal puml s must havc thcir suction lines flooded at all t i l cs. Therefore, suction lines should fall continuously from a sufficient height from overhead source to the pump and be adequately vented to minimize the presence of vapor. The minimum vertical height required from source of the liquid to pump suction is called the net positive suction heod.
This is critical for efficient pump operation and must not be reduced.
Vessel elevations often depend on the NPSH of its associated pump. See Figue 2 to Lsyout 45 line Size Suction piping usually is one or two line sizes larger than the pump suction nozzle size.
Suction piping more than two sizes larger should Irc queried with the Process Department. Centrifugal pumps are supplied with suction nozzles on the end of the pump casing, axially in line with the impeller shaft; however, they also are on the top or side of the pump casrng.
Usually, pumps are specified with end or top suction for general services. Side-suction pumps, with side discharge, frequently are selected for large-volume water duty. Also side suction-side discharge pumps can be obtained in multistage form for higher pressure differentials.
These pumps tend to become very long, so if plot space is tight, consideration should be given to downloading the pump in a vertical form with a sump at grade. See Figure Consider the use of flanged removable spool pieces, to allow pumps to be removed if required, without cutting the pipe and, therefore, avoiding additional fabrication. Due to the suction line being larger than the suction nozzles, reducers are required in the line. Reducers should be as close as possible to nozzle.
Eccentric reducers are used with the flat on top for hodzontal pumps. This prevents vapor being trapped and encouraging. I emporory Startup Strainers. Irigure Il the phenomenon of cavitation. For pumps with suction and discharge nozzles on the top of the casing, care must be taken to ensure that the flats on eccentric reducers are orientated back to back, so that suction and discharge lines do not foul each other. Isolation valves must be provided on the suction line upstream of the strainer to allow its removal.
It should be located within 3 m 10 ft of the pump nozzle and should be accessible for hand operation. Casing and baseplate drains should be piped to the appropriate piping system. All pumps must have a temporary startup strainer in the suction line to prevent any pipe debris damaging the internals of the pump. The mesh size of the strainer must be specified or approved by the pump manufacturer, which is aware of the pump's characteristics.
Strainers are located between the pump suction isolation valve and the pump. This allows the pump to be isolated and the strainer removed to be cleaned or replaced. Strainers are available in the following styles: Both types have the advantage that the piping is left undisturbed and strainer element can be removed simply by unbolting the blind flange on the tee, thus leaving the piping and supports undisturbed.
Scc ljigurc Sy stem f rlgure. Discharge Piping Line Size. Generally, discharge piping is one or two sizes larger than the pump discharge nozzle size. For example, a 10" suction nozzle on a pump where the suction size of the pipe is 12" or 14,, is probable, but the same suction nozzle where the suction size of the pipe is 16,' or 18,, is questionable, check with the Process Department.
Dischorge Line Piping Fittings. Due to discharge lines being larger than the discharge nozzle, cccentric reducers are required in the line. A pressure gauge should be located in the discharge line, upstream of the check and isolation valves. When a level switch for pump protection is installed in the discharge line, upstream of the block valves, ensure good access for maintenance of switch. Avoid supporting large lines from pipe-rack structures if possible, this enables minimum-size beam sections to be used and better access for pump removal and maintenance.
Slde-suction and -Discharge Piping. A hodzontal centrifugal pump with side suction and discharge usually is installed for heavy duty service with large bore lines.
Supply a straight piece of pipe two pipe diameters long between the nozzle and elbow. The tvvo-diameter pipe length can be eliminated if the elbow is in the horizontal plane, eliminate the pipe length only if available space is tight.
INCORRECT For smaller sizes, the piping system supports the pump and motor; therefore, it is essential that the line is supported local to the pump to prevent the line moving when the pump is removed. Ensure that there is good access to pump for maintenance and withdrawal with no overhead obstructions for lifting out pump.
Larger-size inline pumps have feet or lugs on the casing for supporting from grade or steelwork. Usually, this type of pump is installed in cooling tower water circulating service, retention ponds, and applications where the NPSH is low and suction is taken from a sump below grade.
Sqc igurc The suction and discharge lines of a reciprocating pump should have pulsation dampers installed where vibration might be caused in the pumps due to cyclic pulsation of the liquid. The location of dampers, if installed in the discharge piping of the pump, should be selected for the nearest location to discharge nozzle of pump to minimize the piping length.
The piping layout should not cause any obsbuction to the operation of the pump or any difficulty in the maintainability of the pump. The liquid is pushed by means of gears or screws. These pumps uied only in special cases. Each design case needs to be addressed separately, and the vendor of the pump should participate in the design process.
The steam inlet nozzle usually is on the right-hand side when viewed from the pump coupling end of the turbine, with the exhaust on the left-hand side. Turbines can be downloadd with the inlet and the exhaust on the same side. This means that the piping designer can place the exhaust connection either on the same or opposite side from the inlet. Generally, opposite side location of nozzles results in less piping congestion. Worm-up Eypass. On automatic startup, a warm-up bypass must be provided around the control valve.
This blpass is usually a 1" globe valve, is partially opened to allow steam to keep the turbine constantly warm, and is slowly turning to prevent the shock of hot steam entering a cold turbine, to eliminate damage to turbine blades. For manual startup, it is recommended that a warm-up bypass be installed, but the iob flow sheets govern.
When a warm-up bypass is installed, a steam trap on the casing keeps the system free of condensate. Steam inlets are fumished with strainers as part of the turbine for protection against pipe debds; therefore, inlet piping must be designed with a removable section for strainer removal.
Steam supply to turbines must avoid pockets in the line and be moisture free at all times; otherwise, the turbine will be damaged if condensate enters the turbine while it is running. Upstream of the Piping Suppott ffid. For automatic startup, the isolation valve is replaced with a remote operated control valve; the bootleg and traps are still required upstream as for manual startup. Steam traps should be provided to keep the turbine casing free from condensate.
These can be installed at the casing low point if a connection is provided or on the outlet piping if the casing drains into the outlet system.
There must be a trap before any vertical rise that could form a pocket where condensate can be collect and piped away to a collection system. Discharge Piping. When an exhaust is to a closed system, there must be a block valve between the turbine and the main header.
This block always is open during normal conditions and closed only for turbine maintenance ol removal. Thought should be given to locating exhaust block valve on the pipe rack immediately before lines enter main header; this prevents accidental closure of this valve. Auxiliary Piping Most pumps require external seNices to be piped to them for bearing cooling, bearing lubrication, seal flushing, venting, and draining.
Thought should be given to running subheaders to groups ol' pumps that have harness requirements. These subheaders must be sized and marked on flow sheet masters. Because branch Iines to individual pumps are small in diamcter, that is, 6 lnrn, it is advisalrlc to t kc l rancll coll cctions from tllc.
This prevents pipe debds getting into the branch line, the pump bearings, and the like. Most vendors supply the auxiliary piping to the pump seals through a harness.
Care should be taken to ensure harness piping does not interfere with good operation and maintenance sDace, Piping Support and Stress lssues The piping around pumps should be designed to minimize the forces to the pumps caused by piping stresses. The stresses can be caused by temperature variation, piping weight with fluid, or vibrations in piping systems.
The pumps are high-precision lotating machinely and can be damaged by misalignment in the casing or foundation of the pump. The allowable forces to the nozzles of the pumps should be determined according to the iob or vendor specification.
Each line connected to a pump should be considered for thermal stress calculation. The first selection usually is based on the operating temperature. Care should be exercised, since in some cases, the piping system does not present the same constant temperature, depending the mode of operation.
Common expansion loops, but also flexible ioints and ball ioints, should be used to minimize the external forces due to thermal expansion and contraction. The various restrictions or free supports, such as anchor support, stopper, or tension rods, can be used to reduce the force on the nozzles of the pump. The following text is not intended to influence the selection l a compressor but to highlight certain issues that must be considt'r'cd when laying out the suction and discharge pipewolk to the ompressor.
Each type of compressor has the specific duty l take in the vapor at low pressure, compress it, and discharge the virPor at a higher pressure. The quantity of vapor to be moved and the rlischarge pressure usually are the deciding factors when selecting the lyl e compressor to be used. These machines 1gt'rrerally are specified for transporting lower volumes of vapor than rcrrtrifugal compressors. If several stages of compression are t,rrrPloyed, extremely high pressures can be achieved.
Because of their r ' il rocating action, these machines cause piping systems that are r rot properly designed and supported to pulsate, vibrate, and generate lirliguc that may resr-llt in fracture and system failure. Therefore, care slrorrltl bc taken with thc materials of selection and method of 57 3. All auxiliary equipment required for operating, starting, and controlling gas turbine units and turbine protection is either discussed directly in this standard or referred to in this standard through references to other publications.
Specifically, gas turbine units that are capable of continuous service firing gas or liquid fuel ot both are covered by this Centrifugal compression is the force converted to pressure when a gas is eiected by an impeller at increasing velocity.
Generally, centrifugal compressors are specified when large quantities of vapor have to be transported through the piping system. The suction-discharge pressure differential range is lalger than that of reciprocating compressors.
Centrifugal compressots are not subiect to the same pulsation and vibration issues as reciprocating compressors and, therefore, do not produce the effects that may result in potential piping system failure. Table of Contents Drivers Drivers are required to power the compressor, and they fall into three categodes: Electrical drivers range from small flameproof motors to large motors, hp or larger, that require an independent cooling system.
Steam drivers comprise single- or multi. Gas drivers cover gas turbines or gas internal combustion engines. The driver is selected based on several factors: Alternative 1. Referenced Standards. Combustors and Fuel Nozzles. Casing Connections.
Rotaling Elements. Bearings and Bearing Housing. The design and specifying of these items of equipment are the responsibility of the mechanical engineer; however, a piping engineer or designer benefits from being aware of these documents and reviewing the sections that relate directly to piping or a mechanicalpiping interface. The standards discussed are. Gas Turbines for the Petroleum.
Nameplates and Rotational Arrows. AI,l Standard Al'l Statr lard 6 9. Starting and Helper Driver. Gears, Couplings, and Guards. Controls andlnstrumentation. Inlet Coolels. Insulation, Weatherproofing, Fire Protection, and 3. Hot gas expanders, over "C 'F , are not covered in this standard.
Chapter 1 contains information pertinent to all equipment covIt is to be used in conjunction with the following chapters as applicable to the specific equipment covered: Acoustical Treatment.
Fuel System. Typical Data Sheets. Lateral and Torsional Analysis Logic Diagrams. Gas Turbine Nomenclature. Centrifugal and Axial Compressors. Integrally Geared Compressors. Reciprocating Compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services Scope lhis standard covers the minimum requirements for reciprocating ompressors and their drivers used in petroleum, chemical, and gas ir clustry services for handling process air or gas with either lubdcated or nonlubricated cylinders.
Compressors covered by this standard are ,1 moderate to low speed and in critical services. Also covered are the r t,lated lubricating systems, controls, instrumentation, intercoolers,. Compressors not covered are a integral gas-engine-driven comrressors with single-acting trunk-type automotive-t? The r ' lLrirements for packaged reciprocating plant and instrument-air t nlpressors are covered in API Standard Allowable Speeds. Allowable Discharge Temperature.
Road and Gas Loadings. Critical Speeds. Compressor Cylinders. Valves and Unloaders. Pistons, Piston Rods, and Piston Rings. Crankshafts, Connecting Rods, Bearings, and Crossheads. Repairs to Gray or Nodular Iron Castings. Control Logic Diagramming. Distance Pieces. Figures and Schematics. Packing Case and Pressure Packing. Compressor Frame Lubrication. Material Specifications for Mator Component Parts. Cylinder and Packing Lubdcation.
Reciprocating Compressor Nomenclature. Typical Mounting Plate Arrangement. Reduction Gears. Belt Drives. Pulsation and Vibration Control Appendix M. Fulsation Design Studies. Guidelines for Sizing Low Requirements. I'rcl arralion [0r Acodstic.
International Standards and Referenced Publications. Pass Appendix P. Air Intake Filters. I Vendor's Data. Slr iPrttcrtt. It does 64 Clkvl: Inlet Air Filtels. Inlet Separators. Table of Contents Foreword. Statutory Requirements. Pressure Casing.
Rolaling Elemen ts. Shaft Seals. Bearing Housings. Screw 7. Annex A Normative. Annex B lnformative. Nomenclature for Equipment. Annex C Informative. Forces and Moments.
Annex D Q. Annex F Informative. Materials and Their Specifications for Rotary Compressors. Annex H lnformative. Annex I Informative. Typical Vendor Drawing and Data Requirements. Lube-Oil and Seal-Oil Systems.
Layout 65 Compressors. Piping-Specific Guidelines to Layout plant shutdown. The piping system should have the minimum overhanging weight, and bracing should be provided as needed to reduce the vibration created by the compressor. The use of high-integrity butt welding fittings is recommended and should be consideted instead of socket weld fittings. See Figures Type of Cylinders Figures and show details of the cylinder arrangements. When a gas or vapor is compressed, this raises the temperature of the product.
In a reciprocating machine, compression is violent and the increase in the temperature significant. Inlet temperatures of C may be raised to over 'C by the act of compression. The cylinder becomes hot, and depending on the vapor being compressed, it will need some form of cooling. This usually is in the form of cooling water, but for low heat increases, a glycol-filled jacket may be specified. Compressor Layout Foundotion. The foundation of the machine must be of a sufficient srze so that it can support the compressor and all its auxiliary equipment.
Cylinder supports are supplied by the vendor if they are required, and they must be attached to the compressor foundation concrete. Likewise, the snubber supports must bc attached to the foundation of the compressor and springs can be used locally to support the snubbers.
Operation and Mointenance Art effcctivc compressor layout see igure. All the compression cylinders tut tut onc side of the ftame and cyliruler diameters and lengths vary ttt I t tling to the comPosition, pressure, and volume of gas to be compressed. Gas t t. For angle-type compressors, locate the crankshaft parallel to the suction and discharge headers. For balanced, horizontally opposed compressors, the crankshaft should run at right angles to the suction and discharge headers. This feature can influence the overall dimensions of the house, as in addition to the necessary building and maintenance clearances, the vertical reactions of the loaded crane increase the foundation size.
Since these must not be connected to the machine foundations, the building size is affected. It is usual for compressor vendors to indicate the overall foundation dimensions on their layout drawings. These dimensions should be requested as early as possible and forwarded to the civil engineering group.
The compressor building must be sized very early in the layout stage, even if only preliminary dimensions are available. When the dimensions of the compressor have been determined, add to these dimensions adequate clearance for maintenance plus possible control valve stations, lube oil equipment, local control panel, and the like. Allow at least 2 m all around the odginal dimensions.
In practice, this 2 m allowance provides a walkway of only mm, due to other items occupying floor space. With two or more machines, allow at least 2 m between compression cylinders to allow for adequate piston removal.
All dimensions must be confirmed from certified vendor lrawings. Allow a maintenance area at one end of the buildinc. Pits, trenches, and similar gas traps should be avoided in Jlas compressor houses. Large reciprocating gas compressors usually are elevatecl above grade, with lhe mezzanine floor level with lhe tou ol. The height of the mezzanine floor above grade is kept to a minimum consistent with the adequacy of space foipipirr6 and access, especially to valves and drains.
Suction and Discharge Piping Special consideration is required in the design of piping system at i l near compressors to reduce fatigue failures and possible costly pli l I shutdown. The piping system should have the minimum v ,r hanging weight, and bracing should be provided as needed to re ll , vibration- created by the compressor.
Compressor suction piping should be suitably clean to avoi l ingress of foreign material. It is usual for the suction piping to be routed to the top ot. Liquids must be prevented from entering the compressor.