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Following is the Summary of this report: Aspects related to legal regulations of Tribes and tribal areas 1 Laws and policies enacted by the Parliament and State Legislatures should not be automatically applied in the Fifth Schedule areas as was the case under colonial rule or as is presently the case in the Sixth Schedule areas.
In case this is untenable, the Governor should be mandated to take the advice of the Tribes Advisory Council and examine legislations and policies passed by the Parliament or State Legislatures and the implications of the same on tribal welfare.
A mechanism for such examination and action should be clearly stated and established. Instead of two-thirds elected members from the State Legislature, this should be restricted to half the members of the TAC. Moreover, these elected representatives must come from different political parties, rather than only from the ruling party. The remaining one-half should be comprised of Chairpersons of the district Panchayat bodies or chairpersons of the Autonomous Council, wherever established of the Scheduled Areas on a rotational basis.
Tribes Advisory Council should be empowered, made active and responsible for the tribal affairs in the State. Funding should not be left to arbitrary discretion of the State Governments. Livelihoods of tribal communities 1 There is a dire need to establish agro-based training institutions and related labour- intensive processing industries in tribal regions.
Terms and quantum of micro-credit should be made reasonable for individuals, SHGs, cooperative institutions and Gram Sabhas in Scheduled Areas for the tribes to pursue these occupations. In order to make use of land available with the tribal farmers, they should be motivated to undertake organic farming and eco-forestry.
This requires concerted efforts by the Departments of Agriculture and Forest to motivate the tribal farmers to undertake such activities. Although a majority of Scheduled Tribes have land, and cultivation is their main occupation, water for agriculture is the greatest impediment in production. Micro watershed development program with people-centered participatory approach is a good method for poverty reduction through natural resource management in tribal regions.
Therefore, micro watershed should be given top-most priority in tribal areas to enhance agricultural productivity. This warrants the prevention of all kinds of tribal land alienation through strict enforcement of laws and restoration of alienated land to the tribal owners as per the provisions of the PESA and the confirmatory Acts by various States.
There should be monitoring agencies at the National and State levels to prevent alienation of tribal land and its restoration. Their customary right to land, forest and sources of livelihood must be respected and protected.
The issue of nomenclature must be addressed by commissioning a special study. This is reflected in the disparity in literacy levels, drop-out rates and enrolment in higher education.
Hence, there is a need for greater gender focus and social mobilization to encourage education of girls. The State must develop certain mechanisms to this effect. Since the educational scenario in tribal areas is marked by poor infrastructure, providing adequate infrastructure, such as classrooms, teachers and teaching aids as well as basic facilities like electricity, water, boundary walls and toilets is absolutely essential for the proper functioning of these schools and from the perspective of security and safety of children.
In view of the deteriorating condition of elementary education in tribal areas, where Sarva Siksha Abhiyan has hardly been of help, recourse should be taken to the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, which provides for compulsory enrolment of all children between the age group 6 to 14, re-enrolment of those who have dropped out with the facility of special coaching for admission in a class appropriate to his or her age, and admission of a child in a neighbouring school of his or her choice.
Along with the teaching staff, the administrative staff dealing with tribal education should have regular orientation courses to appreciate tribal culture and way of life. To facilitate such training, the centers of training should be located in the tribal areas. There should be a separate cadre of teaching and administrative staff, who will serve among the tribal schools over the long run. Music and dance are a central part of tribal life.
Therefore, storytelling, theatre, painting, music and dance performances should be promoted. Similarly, sports such as football, archery and other popular local sports are extremely beneficial and therapeutic for children, and should be promoted. For developing better understanding of the tribal cultures and their promotion, there should be appropriate number of tribal cultural academies in regional centres.
An important step in this direction is teaching tribal history and culture in schools for both tribal and non-tribal children. The basic principles are: a The residential schools should be in places where the weather is least harsh, b there should be special security for the children, including girl children for whom there should be women wardens, c the parents of students should be brought to these institutions so that they are informed about the education, and quality of life, of their children, d there should be proactive efforts by Tribal Affairs officials of the State to approach every family to help them make an informed choice to send their children to the schools, e the holidays for these schools should be fixed in such a way that the children can meet their family, when the family returns to the place where they celebrate festivals, weddings, etc.
Tribal people as a population segment are not politically very vocal. However, they have different geographical, social, economic and cultural environments, different kind of health cultures and health care needs.
Hence their views and priorities must get due place in any health care program, meant for them. We suggest making use of three types of existing institutional mechanisms to improve the programs. Such councils should be constituted at the block or ITDP level, district, state and national level. These should be empowered to shape the health plans and monitor implementation.
Enormous scope exists for communication in local dialects and for the use of technology. Instead of alienating or rejecting them, a sensitive way of including them or getting their cooperation in health care, must be explored. Traditional herbal medicines should be protected through community ownership. The ownership and intellectual property rights of tribal community over their own herbal medicines and practices should be ensured. Health care delivery to the Scheduled Tribe population should be culture-sensitive and in the local language in order to overcome this distance.
Health care must be available within that distance.
The new pattern should not be enforced as a top-down, vertical, uniform national program, but should provide a framework for local planning with local participation. We recommend that, instead of making futile efforts to import unwilling and unstable personnel from outside, the most feasible and effective long term solution will be to select, train and deploy local Scheduled Tribe candidates. The candidates must be local, belong to Scheduled Tribes, be fluent in local tribal dialects, be selected on merit and should be committed to serve in the local Scheduled Area for at least ten years.
Since the selection for medical education is through a statewide and all India competitive process, the local Scheduled Tribe candidates may not get selected. All seats are to be reserved for such committed Scheduled Tribe candidates, to be selected from the respective Scheduled Areas, depending on the population and need for doctors in each Scheduled Area.
The aim should be to provide, in ten years, the required number of appropriately trained doctors to serve in these areas.
It affects not only health but also productivity, family economy, social harmony and ultimately, development. Hence, i the Excise Policy for Scheduled Areas, approved by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, in and accepted by the states, should be implemented effectively, ii the availability and consumption of tobacco and drugs should be severely controlled and iii the availability and use of alcohol and tobacco products among the Scheduled Tribe population, and the implementation of control policies by the states, should be monitored on selected indicators.
These efforts should become a critical part of the Tribal Sub-Plan.
One percent of the total budget for the Scheduled Tribe population TSP should be allocated to the generation of reliable, timely, and relevant segregated data on Scheduled Tribes population, from the local to national level. This will provide the crucial instrument — the facts — necessary to guide program managers, policy makers and the Scheduled Tribe population itself. Necessary administrative and financial authority should be provided to this body.
As a result of the paradigmatic of how the core compo- Dhan is a financial inclusion programme, massive shift of households above the nent of the JAM trinity can be inscribed and the reform of the anti-poverty poverty line away from the PDS, ration in an alternative policy framework, in system is only one of its many objectives. This, adding goods is the core aim. Computerising Ration Shops Survey. Mobile technologies, whose How has supply chain monitoring been What in Kerala has been framed as a pilot ownership has increased spectacularly designed?
A Ration Card Man- has been transformed radically: a transfers through mobile money.
In this case, the benefits. This has been corroborated by based on theoretical requirement. A ban on Aadhaar for social safety nets findings on the depth and pervasiveness third module, known as an Inspection was dealt with by a state-led project of of PDS leakage across the nation,1 which Monitoring System, would track all the biometric registration.
The machines makes it difficult for many beneficiaries inspections conducted in the ration are also meant to hold the ration dealers to access their entitlements in a regular shops NIC Kerala Albeit implemen- accountable, ensuring that they sell exactly way.
The parlance on a shift to cash tation has only been partial, the pro- what is due to beneficiaries—speakers transfers, which used to be constructed gramme reflects the idea of utilising infor- announce, in Kannada, the amount of in hypothetical terms, is now taking the mation systems to preserve PDS integrity.
The National Infor- able purpose of their usage. In particular, systems based on will be crucial choices in this historical www.
Aadhaar or biometric devices at large phase. How- www. As shown by recent comparative studies, raoka was in the process of adapting the tech- nology to minimise tamperability Masiero states enacting proper PDS reforms have and Prakash In cases where the email address of the root causes.