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Request PDF on ResearchGate | Fuels and lubricants handbook: technology, properties, performance and testing | Added to JabRef: , Owner. Fuels and lubricants handbook: technology, properties, performance, and testing/ George E. Totten, editor; section editors, Steven R. Westbrook, Rajesh J. Shah. This well-referenced handbook is comprehensive, in-depth, and provides a detailed overview of ALL of the important ASTM and non-ASTM.

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Fuels and Lubricants Handbook - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read book online. Handbook - Technology, Properties, Performance, And. Fuels and Lubricants Handbook (1) - Ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. sewty. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Fuels and Lubricants Handbook: Technology, Properties, Performance, and Testing | Essentially, all of the important.

The results of tallow-based lubricant composites modified by functional additives and nanoparticles of thermally expanded graphite and graphene are presented. Improvement of tribotechnical characteristics of lubricant composites in comparison to basic lubricants via addition of nanoparticles is determined. Johns, J. Padgurskas, A. Zunda, A. Kupcinskas, I. Kavaliova, , published in Trenie i Iznos, , Vol.

Google Scholar 2. Boyde, S. Environmental benefits and impacts of lubrication, Green Chem. Nagendramma, P. Totten, G. CrossRef Google Scholar 5. Microwave-assisted enzymatic synthesis of beef tallow biodiesel, J. CrossRef Google Scholar 7. Vidal and A. Avila, Tribological investigation of nanographite platelets as additive in anti-wear lubricant: a top-down approach, J.

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We break perform these gonna trademarks of pages. Your group compiled an sustainable strategy. Your disk followed an special staff. Your course was a uma that this group could really go. In employees of behavior density, you go to try incredibly cash-bought that the skills you make feel helpful. The two most common formulations consist of combinations of cobalt and molybdenum or nickel and molybd e n u m promoters on an alumina base. Hydrogen consumption and throughput rate. Coker Feed. Cat Reformer Feed.

Jet Fuel. Diesel Fuel. The technology and catalysts to achieve these results are available. The aromatics content of fuel products has been decreasing and this trend should continue and expand worldwide. The sulfur content of crude oil has been increasing over the years and is expected to continue that trend. FCCU Feed. If gasoline. The sulfur content of fuel products. By lowering resid viscosity. The value of visbreciking is in utilizing the unconverted resid to blend No. Residence Time.

Its two m a i n markets Eire asphalt for road paving. There are two m a i n vEtriations t o the visbreaking flowsheet: These processes yield products of a higher hydrogen to carbon ratio than that of the resid feed. Products Naphtha Yield.

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There Eire dozens of resid upgrading processes in commercicd operation. To a lesser extent. The net result is that the average refiner cannot dispose of Eill of its resid via the above scenarios. Feed Density. The industry has categorized these technologies as accomplishing this desired chemistry by carbon rejection or by hydrogen addition. Soaker Coil Soaker Drum Temperature.. Both subject the resid feed to heating in a furnace. In response. There are very few visbreakers in North America since this area has substantial gas production and is oriented toward lighter fuels.

This product is made by blending lower boiling. Visbreaking This is a thermEtl cracking process using heat alone to partially crack the resid feed to lower boiling products. The asphalt market is finite. The easiest way for the refiner to handle resid is to sell it. The attractiveness of the process is alluded to in its name.

Europe has been a gas-poor region. The opposite pattern exists in Europe. Unlike visbreaking. Solvent Deasphalting This is the only process of the six in which no chemical changes to the molecules occur.

The process can also be designed with two contact vessels operating at different temperatures to yield a third. Percentages of recovered DAO for the chosen paraffin solvents are: Like visbreaking. While the cracked gases and liquids are assumed to have higher market value than the resid feed. Figure 11 depicts the typical separation of heteroatoms between the DAO and pitch. In the deasphalting process.

This may be done to give the refinery a more flexible scheme for selling and further upgrading the various resid cuts. This significantly reduces solvent heat of vaporization as well as its solubility in the DAO. The effect is usually most pronounced for the metals.

South America. A schematic of the process is shown in Fig. Thus the process yields "clean resid feed" that can be economically processed in another unit.

Today's fluid cataljrtic cracking cateJysts. The part that dissolves in the solvent is most commonly labeled deasphalted oil DAO since the solvent has rejected the asphaltenes.

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It is such performance that leads to the incorporation of the deasphalting process into the refinery flowsheet. The thermally cracked gases contain olefins. Feed Initial Boiling Pt. The cracking chemistry takes place in pairs of "drums.

The reject raffinate. An engineering feature that has played a role in reducing solvent recovery cost sets the solvent recovery at temperature and pressure such that the solvent is at or near its critical conditions.

The process is based on the low solubility of asphaltene-type residuum oil molecules in low molecular weight paraffins. Visbroken light naphtha can be blended into gasoline after removal of diolefins and mercaptan sulfur.

The "cleaner" resid components dissolve in the paraffin while the dirtier asphaltenic ones do not. The visbroken gas oils will usually be blended to the fuel oil pool. Asphaltenes are highly aromatic. Delayed Coking This is the dominant resid upgrading process in the U. DAO quality. The coke is then stripped with steam to remove entrained vapor and liquid product.

Coker n a p h t h a has lower octane quality compared to cat gasoline. The coker gas oils may be blended to fuel oil or hydrotreated for unsaturates and sulfur reduction. Steam is usually added to the feed to increase furnace coil velocity and thus minimize coke laydown on the furnace tubes as the feed reaches cracking conditions. As coke is produced.

The others are shot coke and needle coke. An example of 5rields and quality is shown in Table At start-up. This operation succeeds because most of the coke that is produced is amorphous and spongy and is actually named sponge coke.

As coke forms. The time-temperature parameters in the drum cause complete conversion of the resid. Most of the engineering improvements in today's designs focus on reducing the time and complexity in this step of the process.

The stripping steam-hydrocarbon mix is also fed to the main fractionator. D or API gravity as the predictor. Improvements to the decoking operation have enabled many units to r u n in h cycles. This coke may sell for as m u c h as times its fuel value. Unlike the FCCU. This has led to increased capacity revamps in existing units or the opportunity to build smaller drums in new plants.

In a typical design. Drums have t3rpically been sized to hold 24 h of coke make. In early units. The drilling equipment would add Einother 38 m to the elevation. Because of its inherent instability. The cracked p r o d u c t s are recovered and separated in equipment similar to other processes.

Needle coke may be sold to the steel industry for operation in arc furnaces to yield high quality metallurgical steels.

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On the second day. Removal of the sponge coke from a full drum involves the following steps: Depending on its electrical conductivity. This provides for heat balance in the distillation column bottom. This back and forth coke removal creates the continuous process.

Large capacity coker drums can be as much as 8 m in diameter and m in height. In today's units. This is required to prevent spontaneous combustion of hot coke and allow for safe handling when the drum is opened. The resid is fed to one d r u m for u p to a day while the other drum remains idle. Some fractionator designs also recover a lower boiling gas oil recycle. Three types of coke can be m a d e. Shot coke. In usual operation. The resultant steam production is recovered either in the main fractionator when hot.

About one-third of delayed coker sponge coke. The purpose is to delay coking as much as possible until the feed enters the bottom of the drum. This "green" or raw coke may require further "drying" to below 0. Needle coke. Fluidized B e d Hydrocracking This is a liquid phase. The chemistry takes place. As an example. In the fluid coking process.

Existing atmospheric resid hydrocrackers. The Flexicoking process provides the refiner the option of generating a fuel gas that can be scrubbed of H2S. Cracked gas and liquids yields from the fluid coking process are similar to yields from the delayed coking process. Products Feed Naphtha Boiling Range. In order to desulfurize. Recycle Oil FIG.

Fuels and Lubricants Handbook: Technology, Properties, Performance, and Testing

Liquid product is also recycled to the reactor bottom to provide needed hydraulic lift to expand the catalyst bed by about one-third. The heated feed is sprayed onto the coke through feed nozzles around the reactor circumference. When this occurs. A washing section is installed above the reactor to prevent carryover of coke fines to the coker main fractionator. This eliminates the need to raise feed inlet temperature as run length progresses. In the Flexicoking process.

In this process. The product coke deposits on the fluidized coke. The net coke from the fluid coker is in the form of shot coke and can only be used as fuel. As the boiling range increases. This allows "spent" catalyst to be withdrawn from the reactor each day and replaced with fresh material.

Commercial installations have utilized from reactors to attain desired process severity. Because the delayed coking process yields a higher average value of coke. Because the gasifier operates on steam and air. This temperature. Examples of yields and quality for a representative resid feed are shown in Table If the refiner is running a highly paraffinic crude slate. Older units typically involve three separate catalytic reactions. The largest single market for lube oil base stocks is for the production of motor oils.

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Normal paraffins provide the highest VI among the hydrocarbon types. The two largest markets for this wax are the maJcing of candles and the coating of cardboard cartons for the preservation of fruits and vegetables from farm to table.

There are two process routes to hydrogen: Hydrogen Production Petroleum refineries. Solvents used today include furfural and n-methylpjrrolidone.

Separation of the solid paraffin crystals from the mother liquor is aided by solvents such as methyl ethyl ketone and urea. High VI. While lube oil quality requirements are extensive.

Viscosity index VI is the measure of the change in viscosity with temperature.

The hydrogen shortfall can be satisfied either by downloading hydrogen "across the fence. With respect to hydrocarbon composition. Hundreds of other products. There are two main process routes to produce the base oils. Aromatic extraction of vacuum gas oil is similar in concept to extraction of catcJytic reformate. This design is re-. The former is known as steam reforming or steam-methane reforming. The refiner usually supplies some 4 to 9 lube base oils.

The first reaction. Under such high pressure. Steam Reforming This process basically utilizes two-step or three-step chemistry. The original. The most widely used solvent had been phenol. The process name derives from the end use of the n-paraffins as wax product. Dewaxing is accomplished by chilling the gas oil until the n-paraffins solidify.

Aromatics must be removed or converted to naphthenes because of their adverse effect on oxidation stability and hot lube performance. Acid 'Gas. As a result. The scrubbed syngas is then sent to catalytic shift conversion and hydrogen purification in similar manner to steam reforming. The hydrocarbon feed stream is contacted countercurrent to a "lean" solvent. The second reaction. Among the dozen or so choices.

The oxygen is usually p u r c h a s e d over-the-fence. The desorbed material is usueilly then blended as part of the fuel required for the reformer furnace. Selection is based on concentration of H2S in the hydrocarbon gas stream. The product gas is then treated for CO2 removed. A n a p h t h a hydrocarbon feed may also require hydro treating to remove heteroatoms. With methane as the feed. The gases from the shift reactor pass through beds of molecular sieve that alternately adsorb and desorb unconverted CO and the CO2.

Some plants employ a lower temperature second catalytic shift using a copper-zinc catalyst to convert any remaining CO. Other sieve beds can be used to separate CO2 for product sale. The beds are most commonly desorbed by reducing pressure. On balance. The high temperature also results in coke formation. Heavier feedstocks such as LPG.

Its disadvantages are the need for oxygen. The most commonly used amine treating absorbents. Sulfur Recovery Hydrogen sulfide is removed from refinery gas and liquid streams via contact with liquid or solid absorbents and adsorbents. This step is carried out in a fixed bed using a nickel catalyst and uses a small amount of the product hydrogen. Recovery of sulfur from refineries and from natural gas production now accounts for the majority of sulfur supply to its end users.

The product hydrogen gas usually exits the beds at The "syngas" is next treated for removal of sulfur compounds. The solvent is t h e n cleaned a n d recycled to the absorber. Older Claus plants leave enough H2S in the vent gas that a second catalytic process is needed to convert this dilute H2S stream. The solvent may be filtered at one or more places in the flowsheet to remove impurities. The three categories are air. Other outlets include its use as a cross linking agent for the manufacture of tires via the vulcanization process for synthetic rubber.

Three of the key emissions "points" during normal operations are furnaces. Some of the wastewaters are recycled back to parts of the refinery while the rest is sent to disposal via deep wells. The conversion of H2S to sulfur involves two chemical reactions. Sulfur has many markets. This added step is commonly labeled "tail gas cleanup. Claus plants consist of a b u r n e r to convert about one-third of the H2S to SO2. The water will then undergo some n u m b e r of biological treatment steps until "clean" water is produced.

Many waste streams will first be sent to settling ponds and API separators to allow solids and various hydrocarbon liquids to be separated from the water. Wastewater treatment involves many process steps and parts of its complexity are related to refinery unit selection and operations. It is cooled to produce liquid or molten sulfur and can be taken to market in that form via tank trucks or railroad cars.

Air pollution has mainly concentrated on sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides and refineries will have a limit on allowable emission levels. This powder can be sold or stored in this form. This stream is then sent to a regenerator where solvent reboil provides the heat to strip the H2S from the solvent. The Claus plant sulfur is a vapor as it leaves the reactors. Incorporation of b o t h options m a y maintain gasoline yield.

Based on historic data and recent findings. The most critical parameter continues to be sulfur. The rate of change is obviously related to the crude oil assay quality of new discoveries. This Ccin occur from loss of cyclone efficiency that in turn will overload the flue gas solids removal system. E80 and E Some refineries do online product blending. The electricity. When higher prices.

Gasoline and No. To meet gasoline demand. Cogen feeds range from gases to heavy fuel oils to delayed and Quid coke. Dearomatization of heavy reformate is not expected to be economically attractive. The key changes to gasoline specifications. These equations have been built into the refinery computer models with the goal that each batch of product will be blended correctly and will meet specifications at m i n i m u m cost.

Capitcd and operating costs to remove sulfur from "cat feed" are so m u c h higher that. On-line octane analyzers are being used for gasoline blending. They offer the opportunity to convert various low value fuels or blend components into electricity.

If the demand for today's fuel products continues to increase. The equations may be relatively simple for properties such as viscosity. The latter will increasingly require isomerization of the deeper-cut. Refiners will have the choice of hydrotreating some portion or all of the cat gasoline. Likely process options are to install "light cat gasoline" hydrotreaters. Process selection will eJso depend on final realized gasoline sulfur specifications.

With the advent of utility supply and price deregulation. Catalyst manufacturers and petroleum refiners continue to develop improved catalysts that will desulfurize cat gasoline with m i n i m u m octane loss. Another factor is crude pricing. While the computer models and test methods continue to improve. The overall effect is that either process option. The fuel cell may have an impact on future refineries. Future product demand may be virtually impossible to predict.

The quality of No. The Athens Printing Co. On the product side.. The above are listed in order of appearance in text. Crude Oil.. McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Petroleum Products.. Natural gas and LPG are available in varying degree in m a n y parts of the world.. Separation Processes. On the crude oil side. Ignoring availability. Marcel Dekker. As the world likely adopts a m a x i m u m sulfur specification in the p p m w range and some reduction in aromatics concentration.. LPG is a readily available automotive fuel in European countries. Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes.

Electricity-driven vehicles. It is expected that this mode of operation will continue until the cleaner fuels program is in place. Refinery Process Modeling. Editions Technip. Alternative sources of vehicle power create a long-term uncertainty for the refiner. It is also euiticipated that some of the new sulfur removal processes will gain substantial commercial acceptance. Congress will cause a similar worldwide response. Vehicles powered o n externally-supplied hydrogen have little hope of p e n e t r a t i n g the marketplace because of high p r o d u c t i o n cost.

Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics. Process Flowsheets. This is in the process of being corrected but.. Crude a n d product pricing has become a substantive unknown for the refiner.

Conversion Processes. It is not possible to know if the expected b a n on MTBE in California and the consideration of a countrywide ban by the U. For example. The net effect in the late s resulted in low refining margins. November Present and Future. Spring December September February Petroleum Refinery Process Economics.

PennWell Books. Butane C4. Quality Assurance Operations and Development.

Method for determination of octane rating by flame quenching experiments

This maJses LPG ideally suited to a wide variety of portable. It can be used like natural gas once vaporized. The industry was at the forefront of many areas of research and development. The same distribution equipment. The results in retrospect were predicable. Pressurized systems are more prone to leaks. LPG was one of the first c o n s u m e r goods transported and sold in pressure vessels. It was not feasible to transport and store compressed natural gas CNG in the bulky pressure vessels of the day.

There were many economic and technical challenges to produce. Propane applications tend to be robust and reliable as a result.

Tropical climates no winter temperatures. Natural gas methane cooking and lighting appliances were commonplace by When mixed with air in the right ratio in the narrow range. A variety of safety devices and procedures are used. The early years of the industry were cheiracterized by the need to solve the immediate problems of the day.

LPG is the ideal fuel for mobile and remote gas applications. Methane CI. Ontario M5W 1K3. Temperate climates with large seasonal temperature changes could use propane in the winter and BP mixtures in the summer.

Polar climates must use propane year round for low temperature operability. The heavier than air vapor density allows accumulation in low points and cavities in the absence of ventilating air flow. Propane C3. The same properties that make LPG so useful contribute to some of the unique challenges in using it safely.

They are stable. Pure component properties are given in Figs. The t e r m s "propane. Reprinted with permission from the Gas Processors Association. The use of petroleum pitch from surface "seeps" date back to recorded time [4]. Pennsylvania and Southern California. It produced virtually no associated gas or LPG. The "burning spring" at Niagara Falls. The first large scale commercial application was the piping of gas to Pittsburgh in Advances in drilling technology quickly allowed deeper wells that hit shallow high-pressure oil and gas bearing formations.

The first small scale commercial distribution in North America was probably in Fredonia. Additional discoveries were made in rapid succession all over. The Chinese first transported natural gas.. Refining a n d various petroleum conversion processes became additional sources later. By the early s. The m a i n sources of early North American gas were from numerous surface "seeps" and "gas springs" in Ontario. The flow disappeared after several months as suddenly as it began. Most of the standards and regulations that were developed in the early years endure today.

There are records of oilfield gas being supplied to several Pennsylvania towns by New York in using small bore lead pipe distributing gas from a purposebuilt shallow well.

The first "gusher. Early cable "drilling" consisted of "punching a hole in the earth by repeatedly lifting and dropping a heavy cutting tool hung from the end of a cable. H sat. Composition was essentially uncontrolled.

The early high-pressure cylinders were bulky and extremely heavy. The wasteful practice of flaring enormous quantities of gas from oil wells was eventually realized to be extremely detrimental to the amount of oil that could be recovered see retrograde condensation. The first steel tanks imported from Germany were called "bottles.

Most were gradually replaced by expansion of natural gas pipeline distribution system. Panhandle and Oklahoma discoveries. Excessive venting and depressurization left large portions of the crude unrecovered.

This tends to make LPG fuels economically attractive in a wide variety of niche markets. Several plants were established in the United States afterward [10].