Frames of Mind the Theory of Multiple Intelligences - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. sdf. Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences and Education. Uploaded by. taikoubou. Becoming a Multiple Intelligences. Editorial Reviews. Review. "The value of Frames of Mind is less in the answers it proposes than Share. Kindle App Ad. Look inside this book. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences by [Gardner, Howard]. Multiple Intelligences. To learn more, please visit Howard Gardner's official website of MI Theory at The 30th anniversary introduction to Frames of Mind ( PDF).
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PDF | On Jan 1, , Katie Davis and others published The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. a synthesizing frame of mind (Gardner,. a). Howard Gardner. FRAMES OF MIND (). Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence. (“ word smart” or “book smart”). This intelligence involves the knowing which comes . studies on children's theory of mind and the identification of pathologies that involve or is not, a separate intelligence involves a synthesizing frame of mind.
Harvard University A. He is the author of hundreds of research articles, and his 23 books have been translated into more than 20 languages. He is also a recognizable figure in the popular media, having served as producer and consultant for several television programs. He has also been profiled countless times both on television and in print. Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences proposes that intelligent behavior does not arise from a single unitary quality of the mind, as the g -based theories profiled on this Web site suggest, but rather that different kinds of intelligence are generated from separate metaphorical pools of mental energy.
This intelligence includes specific physical skills such as coordination, balance, dexterity, strength, flexibility, and speed, as well as proprioceptive, tactile, and haptic capacities.
Musical: The capacity to perceive e. This intelligence includes sensitivity to the rhythm, pitch or melody, and timbre or tone color of a musical piece. One can have a figural or "top-down" understanding of music global, intuitive , a formal or "bottom-up" understanding analytic, technical , or both.
Interpersonal: The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people. This can include sensitivity to facial expressions, voice, and gestures; the capacity for discriminating among many different kinds of interpersonal cues; and the ability to respond effectively to those cues in some pragmatic way e.
Intrapersonal: Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge. This intelligence includes having an accurate picture of oneself one's strengths and limitations ; awareness of inner moods, intentions, motivations, temperaments, and desires; and the capacity for self-discipline, self-understanding, and self-esteem. This also includes sensitivity to other natural phenomena e. Each individual possesses all nine types of intelligence, albeit to different degrees.
Therefore, they are not mutually exclusive. They are used simultaneously, complementing each other as people develop skills to solve problems. This will provide both awareness and understanding about how they think, behave and respond to their respective environments. Target audience The Multiple Intelligence Assessment is applicable and used by individuals from various backgrounds, with children below 8 years of age being an exception.
Applicability of the assessment The Multiple Intelligence Assessment can be used in schools to assess how well a student can be expected to perform and to determine if special educational programs are necessary.
The items do not include any racial or gender stereotyped comments, while the interpretation and scoring of the assessment is simple and easily comprehensible. The derived score is reliable, as the assessment is administered under standardized settings and extraneous variables such as instructions and the administrator have a minimal influence on the variation in scores as these are standardized across situations.
The assessment also meets requisite practical aspects as it includes the following considerations: 1. The items are formulated in simple layman English 2. The assessment is legible can be easily understood 3. The 54 items are characteristic of the nine types of intelligence being assessed.
These items represent the preferences of people which are subsequently linked to the respective type of intelligence. The items are standardized as they are the same for every respondent with respect to the content, form and order.
Assessment administrator qualifications www. Similarities and differences with similar assessments Intelligence tests such as the General Mental ability test rely on language, numbers and abstractions as test items. This score essentially represents the intelligence level of an individual.
By demonstrating the extent to which an individual possesses all nine types of intelligence, direction towards suitable paths can be decided. If you make a mistake, cross it out and check another box. Sample item: 1. I am able to use spoken or written words to influence or persuade others.
There are six items per domain of intelligence. Step 1: Add up the scores for all six items across the 9 domains Step 2: The minimum and maximum scores that can be obtained for each type are 6 and 24, respectively. Kinesthetic Intelligence — The subject has lot of energy and tend to be quite expressive. Logical Intelligence —The subject has the ability to think conceptually and is able to see patterns and connections.
Rhythmic intelligence — The subject may enjoy listening to music and be appreciative of the same. Hence, may not be inclined to sing professionally or play an instrument. Metaphysical Intelligence —The subject comes across as a broad-minded person who is open to new and novel ways of working.
Norms Norms are standard models or patterns regarded as being typical. A norm of one type or the other is a basic requirement of all tests. This estimate is derived from the analysis of test scores and possibly other relevant data from a sample drawn from the population. The test was administered on a sample of students, aged between years from both public and private schools across different cities in India and Singapore. Therefore, the data collected through research enables one to establish sound psychometric properties of assessments, irrespective of the construct they are designed to measure.
The Rasch model also takes into account the ability of the candidate or the respondent who answered questionnaires, tests or instruments as well as the difficulty of each test item or items Rasch, He argues that test-takers should be ranked consistently by items measuring the same construct. Otherwise, the misfit items items that measure a different construct compared to other items in the test should be revised or eliminated. Table 1 shows the criteria used as benchmarks for determining the validity of the instrument.
According to Wright and Stone , the conditions to produce a useful measurement are: 1. Without a valid response pattern, the individuals cannot be defined precisely.
Item Fit Total mean square in-fit and out-fit of 0. Person reliability Value close to 0. Summary of item validity and reliability in the multiple intelligences instrument using Rasch model Reliability Reliability refers to the consistency of a test, or the degree to which the test produces approximately the same results over time under similar conditions. The statistics generated by Rasch analysis estimate the degree of items suitability that measure latent variables, assuring the item-fit of the instrument are within an acceptable range.
There are 09 items removed because the mean square in-fit and out-fit radius are outside the range of 0. Validity Validity refers to the degree to which a test measures what it claims to measure. A test is valid to the extent that inferences made from it are appropriate, meaningful and useful. Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the quality of the instrument while Confirmatory Factor Analysis was used to assess construct validity of the items.
The results of the analysis indicate that the instrument is deemed acceptable according to Arbuckle and Wothke The Multiple Intelligences Psychometric Assessment is made of 54 perception items of four-point Likert scale that represent nine different intelligence domains. It uses a quantitative methodology that involves the collection of data using both a paper and pencil as well as an online questionnaire.
The benefits of the On-line assessment are rater-free automated scoring, quick feedback, and easy accessibility. Benefits associated with educational assessment include the ability to process detailed data and the potential to build tasks that assess skills that cannot be easily done by other means of assessment Zoanetti, The instrument is administered on a large sample of students aged 13 to 19 by random sampling across private and public schools in different cities of India and Singapore.
Items are quantitatively analyzed using WINSTEPS that is based on the Rasch model to assess the suitability of items and the differential functions based on gender, race and field of study during the academic year Items that have been tested on the validity and reliability form a model representing each construct.
SEM is an approach to measure the quality of instruments whilst Confirmatory Factor Analysis CFA is an approach to measure the validity of construct items.
A measurement model that is assessed by CFA would link factors in a model Kline, Modification indices provided by AMOS suggests that improvement in model fit could be made by allowing several measurement errors to correlate Byrne, ; Joreskog, The constructs are: 1.
Logical-mathematical intelligence LoM , 2. Verbal-linguistic intelligence VeL , 3. Visual-spatial intelligence ViR , 4. Musical intelligence MuZ , 5. Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence KiB , 6. Interpersonal intelligence InE , 7. Intrapersonal intelligence InA , 8. Naturalistic intelligence NaR , and 9. Spiritual intelligence KeR. Hypothesized Model: LoM. Result of the study shows that the good psychometric properties can be used to obtain the multiple intelligences profiles of teenage students.
The validity and reliability of each item in the instrument are essential. Data is also important and the accuracy of data entry needs to be ensured as it contributes to the validity and reliability of the results. When the validity and reliability of the instrument is proven high, it can be construed that the instrument is valid and reliable.
Teachers, therefore, should think of all intelligences as equally important. This is in great contrast to traditional education systems which typically place a strong emphasis on the development and use of verbal and mathematical intelligences. Thus, the Theory of Multiple Intelligences implies that educators should recognize and teach to a broader range of talents and skills.
Another implication is that teachers should structure the presentation of material in a style which engages most or all of the intelligences.
For example, when teaching about the revolutionary war, a teacher can show students battle maps, play revolutionary war songs, organize a role play of the signing of the Declaration of Independence, and have the students read a novel about life during that period.
This kind of presentation not only excites students about learning, but it also allows a teacher to reinforce the same material in a variety of ways.
By activating a wide assortment of intelligences, teaching in this manner can facilitate a deeper understanding of the subject material. Everyone is born possessing the seven intelligences.
Nevertheless, all students will come into the classroom with different sets of developed intelligences. This means that each child will have his own unique set of intellectual strengths and weaknesses. These sets determine how easy or difficult it is for a student to learn information when it is presented in a particular manner.
This is commonly referred to as a learning style. Many learning styles can be found within one classroom. Therefore, it is impossible, as well as impractical, for a teacher to accommodate every lesson to all of the learning styles found within the classroom. Nevertheless the teacher can show students how to use their more developed intelligences to assist in the understanding of a subject which normally employs their weaker intelligences Lazear, For example, the teacher can suggest that an especially musically intelligent child learn about the revolutionary war by making up a song about what happened.
Toward a More Authentic Assessment As the education system has stressed the importance of developing mathematical and linguistic intelligences, it often bases student success only on the measured skills in those two intelligences. Supporters of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences believe that this emphasis is unfair. Children whose musical intelligences are highly developed, for example, may be overlooked for gifted programs or may be placed in a special education class because they do not have the required math or language scores.
Teachers must seek to assess their students' learning in ways which will give an accurate overview of the their strengths and weaknesses. As children do not learn in the same way, they cannot be assessed in a uniform fashion. Therefore, it is important that a teacher create an "intelligence profiles" for each student.
Knowing how each student learns will allow the teacher to properly assess the child's progress Lazear, This individualized evaluation practice will allow a teacher to make more informed decisions on what to teach and how to present information. Traditional tests e.
Supporters of Gardner's theory claim that a better approach to assessment is to allow students to explain the material in their own ways using the different intelligences.
Preferred assessment methods include student portfolios, independent projects, student journals, and assigning creative tasks. An excellent source for a more in-depth discussion on these different evaluation practices is Lazear Conclusion Schools have often sought to help students develop a sense of accomplishment and self-confidence.
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a theoretical foundation for recognizing the different abilities and talents of students.
This theory acknowledges that while all students may not be verbally or mathematically gifted, children may have an expertise in other areas, such as music, spatial relations, or interpersonal knowledge. Approaching and assessing learning in this manner allows a wider range of students to successfully participate in classroom learning.
Additional Reading Blythe, T. A school for all intelligences.
Educational Leadership. Fogarty, R. Integrating curricula with multiple intelligences. Teams, themes, and threads. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc.
Gardner, H. New York: Basic Books Inc. Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18 8 ,