use by instructors in the CCNP TSHOOT course as part of an official Cisco . The lab configuration files for the course should be in flash under the tshoot. Proceed through all CBT Nuggets video training on double- speed to develop a strong overview of the material; Then proceed through all the training for a. You can download the newest questions and answers in this PDF file: https:// ronaldweinland.info
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of TSHOOT and a friend This routine can be hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, per quarter, or per. CCNP CCNA Routing and Switching ICND2 Official. This book is designed to provide information about the Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco. IP Networks (TSHOOT) exam for the CCNP Routing. Exam Description: Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks v2 ( TSHOOT ) is a minute qualifying exam with 15‒25 questions for the .
IGMP B. CIP C. CPIM D. Choose two. It performs virtual fragmentation reassembly after checking egress ACLs.
The destination server reported it is too busy. Choose two A. The tunnel source is using a loopback interface.
The tunnel mode is defined as transport. Keepalives are disabled on the interfaces D. The route to the destination is through the tunnel itself. The tunnel source interface is down. Timeout B. Type of service C. Validate D. Timestamp E. The first log message is an error message with a severity level of 3.
The second message would be shown if the logging console warning command had been issued. Correct Answer: D Refer to the configuration statements shown in the graphic above. R1 config access-list permit tcp host These commands will generate an error message because you cannot use an access list with any debug commands. These commands will have no effect at all.
The debug ip packet command will work as normal and display info for all IP packets. Circuit IDs for service pro- vider circuits might be included in this documentation. A logical topology diagram shows the interconnection Key Topic of network segments.
The diagram reflects where various net- work components are physically located. A listing of interconnections could be. Unlike a logical topology diagram.
It is a good practice to name archival copies of previous configurations based on a certain format that makes sense to you. The hardware can be stored locally or it can be attainable through a supplier that can get you the device within a certain time based on a ser- vice level agreement SLA. Planning and provisioning hardware and software for such outages before they occur can accelerate recovery time.
Larger network environments often benefit from having step-by-step guidelines for troubleshooting a given network issue. Beyond having a backup of current configuration information. To efficiently replace a failed or damaged device. Another network administrator within the same company configures Such a structured approach to troubleshooting helps ensure that all troubleshooting personnel use a common approach.
Documents created during the initial design of a net- work might provide insight into why certain design decisions were made and how the original designers envisioned future network expansion. Restoring Operations After a Failure Although most modern network hardware is very reliable. Aside from hardware failures. As a few examples. These older configurations could prove useful when attempting to roll back to a previous configuration state or when trying to duplicate a previous configuration in a new location.
These two approaches are not compatible. Although a net- work issue might be successfully resolved through various means. When a configuration change is made. With a copy of current configuration information. This example illustrates the criticality of having clear communication among IT personnel and a set of standardized procedures to ensure consistency in network configuration and troubleshooting practices.
During our coverage of the structured approach you might have noticed that documen- tation. Measuring Network Performance Network monitoring is a proactive approach to network maintenance. These statistics can forecast future issues. It is ideal to have a backup of the configuration files on a server in the organization. You do not want to be caught in a situation where you have no information related to the configuration of a device being restored.
The Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance Relationship A structured troubleshooting approach provides step-by-step processes that offer a repeatable consistent plan that makes the troubleshooter more efficient and effective.
What happens if someone neglects to update the documentation or baselines based on changes that may have occurred during scheduled maintenance or some past issue? What happens if we have difficulty communicating with others or they withhold information from us? These assets become liabilities as they are unable to address the question: What should be occurring in the network?
As you have seen. When a failure happens. All of these are fundamental assets to your success as a troubleshooter. Although you can get this from the manufacturer such as Cisco. Following are a few suggestions to help troubleshooters keep in mind the need to document their steps: By making documentation a component in the trouble- Key shooting flow. This knowledge often motivates troubleshooters to perform some level of documentation for exam- ple.
Maintaining Current Network Documentation A set of maintained network documentation can dramatically improve the efficiency of troubleshooting efforts. To assist with the auto- mation of backups. A structured maintenance plan could include a component that routinely requires verification of network documentation and when it was last updated based on timestamps. Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance 35 This interrelationship between maintenance and troubleshooting suggests that the effec- tiveness of your troubleshooting efforts is influenced by the effectiveness of your routine network management tasks.
Because manual checks of documentation might not be feasible in larger environments. The lack of follow-through when it comes to documenting what happened during a troubleshooting scenario is understandable. Because these tasks are so interrelated. Such a scenario is often worse than not having documentation at all. Any difference in the configurations indicates that someone failed to update the backup configuration of a device after making a configuration change to that device.
Although few argue with the criticality of maintaining current documentation. A danger with relying on documentation is that if the documentation is dated not main- tained. To determine what should be happening on the network. Collect information Some information collected might come from other parties for example. Table describes how communication plays a role in each troubleshooting phase. Communication Each of the troubleshooting steps outlined in the structured approach requires clear com- munication.
As shown in Example Clearly communicating with those other parties helps ensure collection of the proper data. When troubleshooting a performance problem on a router. Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance 37 Troubleshooting Steps The Role of Communication Examine collected information Because a troubleshooter is often not fully aware of all aspects of a network.
Last week. After clearly defining the problem. This consultation could provide insight leading to the elimination of a potential cause. This morning. Verify hypothesis Temporary network interruptions often occur when verifying an hypothesis. Because these troubleshooters might be focused on different tasks at different times.
As a side benefit. The process of change management includes using policies that dictate rules regarding how and when a change can be made and how that change is documented.
Problem resolution After a problem is resolved. Change Management Managing when changes can be made and by whose authority helps minimize network downtime.
Consider the following scenario. Eliminate potential causes The elimination of potential causes might involve consultation with others. The previous scenario is an excellent example of how following a structured trouble- shooting approach. Even though the user was unaware of any changes. Chapter Table lists a reference of these key topics and the page num- bers on which each is found.
Cisco Lifecycle Services. Review All Key Topics Review the most important topics in this chapter. This sec- tion focuses on how to use the CLI to collect infor- mation for troubleshooting and maintenance.
This section reviews the ping. This section introduces you to the essential tools for troubleshooting and maintenance tasks. This sec- tion focuses on the steps and commands required to successfully document a network diagram. This chapter introduces you to a sampling of Cisco IOS tools and features designed for network maintenance and troubleshooting.
To be an efficient and effective trouble- shooter. There is no argument that you will be collecting network information when there is an issue. Operating system and application software along with any applicable licensing for the device 2. Physical topology c. Backup of device configuration information b. Vlog c. Which three of the following are components that would be most useful when recov- ering from a network equipment outage?
Blog b. Baseline information collection c. The types of information collection used in troubleshooting fall into which three broad categories? Wiki d. Network event information collection 3. Podcast 4. Which of the following would be appropriate for a collaborative web-based docu- mentation solution? Troubleshooting information collection b. QoS information collection d. Duplicate hardware d. IPS 6.
Which of the following is the ping response to a transmitted ICMP echo datagram that needed to be fragmented when fragmentation was not permitted? Which of the following is a Cisco IOS technology that uses a collector to take data from monitored devices and present graphs. NetFlow c. Which two of the following are characteristics of the NetFlow feature?
Choose the two best answers. Collects detailed information about device statistics c. Which command enables you to determine whether a routing loop exists? NBAR b. Collects detailed information about traffic flows b. Which command can be used to determine whether transport layer connectivity is functioning?
Uses a pull model d. Chapter 2: Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 43 5. Uses a push model 7. QDM d. What feature available on Cisco Catalyst switches enables you to connect a network monitor to a port on one switch to monitor traffic flowing through a port on a dif- ferent switch?
SPAN c. RSTP b. What IOS command enables you to discover the Cisco devices that are directly con- nected to other Cisco devices? SPRT RSPAN d. If you look closely. Specialized maintenance and troubleshooting tools help a troubleshooter implement his fix for an issue. The collection of information when troubleshooting a problem can often be made more efficient through the use of specialized maintenance and troubleshooting tools.
As troubleshooters investigate the information they collected during the troubleshooting process. This information provides a frame of reference against which other data can be compared when we are troubleshooting an issue.
Chapter 1. This is the information collected when the network is operating normally. Several of these steps involve the use of tools that will help gather. By proactively monitoring network devices with specialized report- ing tools. This is the information collected while Key troubleshooting an issue that was either reported by a user or a network manage- Topic ment station NMS. A relation- ship exists between the two. They can then contrast that normal behavior against what they are observing in their collected data.
Specialized maintenance tools can be used in a network to collect baseline data on an ongoing basis so that it is available and current when needed. A popu- lar example of a wiki is Wikipedia http: At From the Library of Outcast Outcast.
Get free trials and work with them for a while. Because such a tight relationship exists between troubleshooting and network mainte- nance. Network Documentation Tools It is fitting that we start this chapter with a discussion on network documentation tools.
Just because it was reported in the past and already had a resolution does not mean you can skip the documentation process. This section focuses on tools that are necessary for trou- bleshooting and maintenance tasks. Many solutions are available on the market. The true power of documentation is seen during the troubleshooting process. The big reason is time. To keep the documentation current is a chal- lenge for most people. Shop around and communicate with the vendors to see what they have to offer you and your business needs.
That is the only way you will be able to determine whether the product will work for you. The features you want the tool to provide will determine the overall cost. At some point. A couple of documentation management system examples are as follows: Several software applications are available for recording.
During the troubleshooting process. A wiki can act as a web-based collaborative documentation platform. This is the information collected when our devices automatically generate alerts in response to specific conditions for example.
This type of wiki technology can also be used on your local network to maintain a central repository for documentation that is both easy to access and easy to update. These alerts can be simple notification messages or emergency messages.
Chapter 1 discussed the importance of network documentation. These applications are often referred to as help desk applications. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 47 some point. External servers for example. Basic Tools Troubleshooting and network maintenance tools often range in expense from free to tens of thousands of dollars.
Regardless of budget. You need to select tools that balance your troubleshooting and maintenance needs while meeting your budgetary constraints. To illustrate. The debug command can provide real-time infor- mation about router or switch processes. The focus of this book is on those show and debug CLI commands that will assist us in solving trouble tickets.
Depending on your network device. Figure provides a sample of the CCP home page. If you intend to routinely copy backups to an FTP server. Destination filename [r1-confg]? Writing r1-confg!
Compare this to the FTP configuration commands and notice the differ- ence. R1 config ip http client username cisco R1 config ip http client password cisco R1 config end From the Library of Outcast Outcast. Notice that the login credentials that is. In a production environment. Example illustrates a router configured to back up the running configuration every minutes to an FTP server with an IP address of You can view the files stored in a configuration archive by issuing the show archive com- mand.
The next archive file will be named ftp: Most Recent 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The output of show archive indicates that the maximum configurations allowed is ten. R1 show archive The maximum archive configurations allowed is If the archive list on the router fills up maximum ten. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 51 Example shows the execution of the copy run start command. The show archive com- mand is then reissued. This is not entirely true. Example Confirming Archive Configuration R1 copy run start Destination filename [startup-config]?
Building configuration. Note that this does not delete anything from the FTP server. Because the path is pointing to an FTP server. Only the entry in show archive is removed to make space in the list. Interfaces that were enabled do not have a no shutdown command in the startup configuration.
This merge is easily witnessed with the interfaces. Restoring a configuration backup requires copying the configuration file from its storage Key location to the running configuration on the router or switch.
The Cisco IOS copy com- Topic mand treats this as a merge operation instead of a copy and replace operation. To fix this.
This is illustrated in Example We can witness this with the password recovery process on a Cisco router. This means that copying anything into the running configuration from any source might not produce the result we desire..
R1 show start. Most Recent However. Once the startup configuration is copied to merged with the running configuration. You can change the maximum number of archives with the maximum command in config-archive configuration mode. During this process.
In this case. Enter Y if you are sure you want to proceed. Y Loading R1-config-3! R1 On the bright side. For exam- ple. Example Restoring an Archived Configuration Router configure replace ftp: Notice how the IOS warns you that this is a copy replace function that completely overwrites the current configuration. Example shows the restora- tion of an archived configuration to a router. Unlike the copy command. In most cases. If you are connected to a router through Telnet or SSH and want to see console messages.
By sending log messages to an external server. By default. Logging severity levels range from 0 to 7. You can also specify the severity level by name instead of number. As part of that command. Depending on the syslog server software. If you need to clear the logging messages in the buffer. Notice that lower severity levels are more severe than those with higher levels. You can view the logging messages in the buffer by issuing the show logging command.
After the buffer fills to capacity. A downside of solely relying on console messages is that those messages can scroll off the screen. Another logging option is to log messages to an external syslog server. Example illustrates several of the logging configurations discussed here. The console is configured for logging events of the same severity level.
Figure shows logging messages being collected by a Kiwi Syslog Server available from http: In Example The router can use a maximum of bytes of RAM for the buffered logging. This buffer can be viewed with the show logging com- mand.. Stratum 1 time sources are the most reliable and accurate. Example shows an NTP configuration entered on a router located in the eastern Key time zone.
NTP will decide based on its protocol which is the most reliable. This implies that devices need to have a common point of reference for their time. In this example. Naval Observatory in Washington. Although you could individually set the clock on each of your devices. Time-stamp accuracy is paramount when it comes to troubleshooting. Users are complain- ing that the network is slow at 5: The ntp server command is used to point to an NTP server.
The problem ticket indicates that this happens every day. Is that really 2: You have just been assigned a trouble ticket.
In such cases. Note that a configuration can have more than one ntp server command. You are browsing the logs to see whether anything abnormal is occurring on the network at that time. The Topic clock summer-time command defines when daylight savings time begins and ends.
You might have heard the saying that a man with one watch always knows what time it is. Reasons to monitor network traffic include the following: If you work for a service provider or are a cus- tomer of a service provider.
You can then take the necessary measures to address them proactively before they become a major issue.
In these instances. Advanced Tools Keeping an eye on network traffic patterns and performance metrics can help you antici- pate problems before they occur. Performance issues can be difficult to trouble- shoot in the absence of a baseline.
Monitoring resource utilization on your network for example. Because it is based on a hierarchy. By routinely monitoring network performance. This is in contrast to taking a reactive stance where you continually respond to problem reports as they occur. Several companies market NetFlow collectors. You need advanced tools to proactively monitor the health of your devices and the health of your network traffic. Stratum 1 is the most reliable. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 57 NTP uses a hierarchy of time servers based on stratum levels from 1 to Figure shows a topology using SNMP.
For the NMS to change the information on the managed device. Table contrasts these two technologies. In the topology. To enhance the security available with SNMPv2c. SNMP is primarily focused on device sta- tistics the health of a device. These statistics can be used. Before SNMPv3.
This consistency is important when data is being collected for baselin- ing purposes. In addi- tion. A flow is a series of packets. NetFlow can keep track of the number of packets and bytes observed in each flow. Only NMSs permitted in access list 10 and 11 will be able to read. Contact and location information for the device is also specified.
You can use the NetFlow feature as a standalone feature on an individual router. Flow information is removed from a flow cache if the flow is terminated. Such a standalone configuration might prove useful for troubleshooting because you can observe flows being created as packets enter a router. After the NetFlow collector has received flow information over a period of time.
Figure shows a sample topology in which NetFlow is enabled on router R4. This command ensures that the SNMP interface index stays consistent during data collection. This information is stored in a flow cache. Because NetFlow does not have a standardized port number. Although not required. You should check the documentation for your NetFlow collector software to confirm which version to configure.
The ip flow-export source lo 0 command indicates that all communication between router R4 and the NetFlow collec- tor will be via interface Loopback 0. A NetFlow Version of 5 was specified. This ensures that all flows passing through the router.
Although an external NetFlow collector is valuable for longer-term flow analysis and can provide detailed graphs and charts. A troubleshooter can look at the output displayed in Example and be able to confirm. Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools 61 R4 config-if exit R4 config ip flow-export source lo 0 R4 config ip flow-export version 5 R4 config ip flow-export destination If you only need to enable specific traps.
These messages. These traps require the NMS to interpret them because they are not in an easy. Although these protocols by themselves lack a mechanism to alert a network administra- tor for example. The Key snmp-server host You can view the enabled traps by using the show run include traps command. If an interface goes down. The redundant link can then be repaired.
Both syslog and SNMP are protocols that can report the occurrence of specific events on a network device. The snmp-server enable traps command is used to enable all traps on the router.. The event command specifies what you are looking for in your custom-defined event. From this short list. The message reminds the administrator to update the network documentation and lists the rationale for clearing the interface counters. Notice that entering the clear counters command triggers the custom-defined event.
In response to a defined event. EEM can perform various actions. The action command is then entered to indicate what should be done in response to the defined event. To illustrate the basic configuration steps involved in configuring an EEM applet.
The specific action to be taken is producing this informational message saying: Please update network documentation to record why the counters were reset. SNMP trap. Note that the clear counters command would be detected even if a shortcut for example. Although this is a rather large collection of predefined messages and should accommodate most network management requirements. An event can be defined and triggered based on a sys- log message.
To verify the operation of the EEM configuration presented in Example The skip no param- eter says that the CLI command will not be skipped that is. Example Basic ping Command R1 ping This section discusses how ping. Three easy-to-use tools built in to the Cisco IOS can help you verify connectivity and further define the problem.
Some relatively simple tasks can confirm the issue reported and in most cases help to focus your troubleshooting efforts. R4 Cisco Support Tools Cisco has several other configuration. They are ping. If it is unsuccessful. Sending 5. The ping command does have several options that can prove useful during troubleshoot- ing. Ping A common command. If you recall from Chapter 1.
The same holds true in reverse with an unsuccessful ping. For every ICMP echo reply received from that specified desti- nation. The router did not wait before considering the ping to have failed and sending another ICMP echo message