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The ability of gold to activate unsaturated groups in different modes, together with its tolerance to a wide range of functional groups and reaction conditions, turns gold-based complexes into efficient and highly sought after catalysts. Natural products and relevant compounds with biological and pharmaceutical activity are often characterized by complex molecular structures. Cyclo isomerization reactions are often a useful strategy for the generation of this molecular complexity from synthetically accessible reactants. Introduction Historically, most civilizations have considered gold as synonym of power, purity, beauty and wealth. In contrast, for a long time, gold was chemically ignored and misconceived as an inert element. It was only at the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty first when a "gold rush" in synthesis started with the publication of the original works of Fukuda Fukuda and Utimoto, , Teles Teles et al. The seminal contributions that sparked the interest in gold catalysis in the ending years of the twentieth century were due to Hashmi et al.
Owing to all these advancements in structure data bases and application software, a highthrough- put virtual screening technology, in which one can screen thousands of compounds for their binding affinity against a target macromolecule, has been developed and utilized to aid in the drug discovery.
Indeed, virtual screening tools have been reported in the literature [ 2 , 3 ]. However, there exist various constraints such as strict computer hardware requirements, demands for highlytechnical computer knowledge, complex operation steps, and user-unfriendly procedures. Herein, we have developed a virtual screening application system which functions under the Windows environment.
This is a user-friendly, flexible, and versatile tool which can be used by anybody who is familiar with Windows OS.
The system is a console application for MS Windows platform.
Required input files and directories AutoDock is one of the most widely used docking application tool, and its use requires a set of preparation steps for general screening [ 4 ]. Included in the process are preparations of acceptable ligands and a receptor macromolecule, calculation of maps, creation of folders for each ligand, and so on.
AutoDock Vina is a new program for molecular docking and virtual screening and achieved an approximately two orders of magnitude speed up compared to AutoDock4 [ 5 ]. At this point users face several difficulties to execute AutoDock Vina, and so we developed a user-friendly and flexible application tool for virtual screening based on AutoDock Vina.
VSDK needs two preparation steps only: preparations of the receptor and ligands, and config file in which a grid center, a grid box size, and a docking run number are assigned Figure 1. Discussion A degree fundoplication is the most common treatment for GERD presently especially for both acid and bile reflux in patients who respond poorly to the proton pump inhibitors. Even regression of Barrett's metaplasia after surgery has become the interest for physicians to advocate the procedure .
Few papers have been published regarding the feasibility of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in day care setting and fewer are double cohort studies in this regard [11—13]. Thus highlighting that an approach towards day care fundoplication had begun whilst the possibility of day care cholecystectomy had already become evident and been brought into practice. Simple acceptances of a procedure to be performed as day care needs to have no increased morbidity and mortality compared to inpatient procedure, high success rate of same-day discharge and satisfied patients.
Good pain relief can be brought in by local infiltration of the diaphragm as well as port site wounds supplemented by NSAIDs or likewise . Recently new interventions to treat GERD have been developed like the magnetic sphincter positioned around the distal esophagus laparoscopically .
Here post operative pain is almost negligible since the dissection is minimal.
Thus pain relief becomes a major criterion for deciding the feasibility of the surgical procedure to be considered as a day care procedure. The Nissen Rossetti fundoplication differs from the usual Nissen fundoplication in not having the divide the short gastric vessels during the fundic wrap creation.
All the other operative steps are similar.
This reduces the operative time and also decreases the blood loss in the surgery. In normal individuals this would even add to decreased post operative pain since the dissection is less than the nissen fundoplication procedure. The De Meester score post operatively for the result of the procedure can assess the efficacy of the procedure.
Symptomatic relief does remain the single best criteria for the outcome analysis of the procedure . Cost factor analysis also highlights the importance of choosing to perform the procedure in day care setting.
Older concepts have changed when now the nasogastric tube is avoided in post operative setting and early alimentation is also initiated for the patients.