by William Wordsworth. William Wordsworth, along with his friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the English romantic movement. William Wordsworth was born at Cockermouth, Cumberland, on April 7, , and was educated at Hawkshead Grammar School and at Cambridge. William Wordsworth () was a major Romantic Wordsworth, introduced the young William to the great poetry of Milton and Shakespeare, but.
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It is very hard to describe Wordsworth’s poetry. The extraordinary haunting voice, so moralistic and yet so eerie, so stern yet so guiltily vulnerable, so ghostly and so dull at once, at times so firm while elsewhere, or even in the same passage, so liquid and elusive. William Wordsworth(). Wordsworth, born in his beloved Lake District, was the son of an attorney. He went to school first at Penrith and then at. William Wordsworth. Cumberland, England. () CONTEXT. ▫ Parents died when boyhood: Grew-up in a rustic society – “pure.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Marcelo Fernandes. Richard L. Basically, his view is that art holds a mirror up to nature. The poet, Wordsworth argues, holds a mirror in particular up to human nature: The influence of Locke on the last sentence ought to be obvious.
Thomas McFarland and M. Like most Kabbalist images, these in turn go back to Neoplatonic speculative origins.
The joy of what they considered to be a fully active imagination expressed itself for both poets in a combined or synaesthetic sense of seeinghearing. Wordsworth seems to have believed, quite literally, that he had retained this combined sense much later into childhood than most people do. The phenomenon is overtly an element in the Intimations Ode, and has little explicitly to do with Tintern Abbey.
As if when voice broke, identity itself were in danger of breaking. This grounding of allusion in experience—in the personal and mortal experience of time—has an unexpected result. Take away the play of allusion, the comforting ground of literary-historical texture, and you place the burden of responsiveness directly on the reader. I myself love Tintern Abbey more than any other poem by Wordsworth, but the love is increasingly an uneasy one.
I do not see how any poem could do more or do better; it dwarfs Yeats or Stevens when they write in the same mode. I suspect that Tintern Abbey is the modern poem proper, and that most good poems written in English since Tintern Abbey inescapably repeat, rewrite, or revise it.
If there is something radically wrong with it, something radically self-deceptive, then this radical wrongness at last will not be seen as belonging to Tintern Abbey alone. The language of Tintern Abbey centers upon the interplay of hearing and of seeing.
To hear is thus also, etymologically, to see, but to see is not necessarily to hear. There is an Emersonian law of compensation in literary history as there is in any other history, including the life of each individual. Nietzsche and Emerson, more than any other theorists, understood that other artists must pay the price for too overwhelming an artist. Wordsworth, like Milton, both enriches and destroys his sons and daughters.
Wordsworth is a less dramatic destroyer, because of the program of internalization that he carried out, but he may have been the greatest Tamerlane of the two. Let me reduce my own hyperboles, which seem to have been rather unacceptable to my own profession, the scholars of poetic tradition. The problem of surpassing Wordsworth is the fairly absurd one of going beyond Wordsworth in the process of internalization. But what, in a poem, is internalization?
I will compare two passages of poetry, and then ask which of these has gone further in the quest towards internalizing what we still like to call the imagination. My resolve to win further I have Thrown out, and am charged by the thrill Of the sun coming up.
But if breath could kill, then there would not be Such an easy time of it, with men locked back there In the smokestacks and corruption of the city. Contrast it to the ancestral passage I will revisit these lines later, as I attempt a full reading of the poem.
Here I am concerned only with the poetry of the growing inner self. Both poets are experiencing a blessed mood that is at work repairing a previous distress, and both poets are seeing into the life of things. But are there still things for them to see into? Can we distinguish, whether in Wordsworth, or Emerson, or in all of their mixed progeny, between internalization and solipsism? No one is going to manage, ever, to accomplish the delightful absurdity of writing the history of the perpetually growing inner self.
But it is possible to write the more limited history of a few changes in historical psychology, which is what the Dutch psychiatrist J. Van den Berg admirably accomplished in a book called Metabletica, translated into English under the title of The Changing Nature of Man.
A disputable but provocative book by a British literary scholar, A. Nuttall, has attempted just this, quite recently, under the title of A Common Sky: Philosophy and the Literary Imagination.
Van den Berg does not discuss Wordsworth, but he centers upon Rousseau and upon Freud, both of them relevant to any account of Wordsworthian internalization. Nuttall does not like Wordsworth, whom he oddly compounds with Nietzsche, because to Nuttall the Wordsworthian innerness is essentially a solipsism. Here is a cento of Nuttall on Wordsworth: Wordsworth remains a philosophically inarticulate member of the school of Locke Wordsworth is plainly bewildered.
He is afraid that his insights are merely projections, hopes that they are telling him about external reality. But Wordsworth, unlike Locke, has a distinctive psychology, a peculiar cast to his mind, and is therefore afraid, as Locke was not, that his ideas are not truly representative of the world It was almost inevitable that the slow progress of subjective isolation should have, as one of its psychological consequences, a compensatory obsession with the objective condition.
For Wordsworth one suspects that articulate thought and reality are in some way inimical to one another. I think that Nuttall, in these comments, has mixed up two closely related but still separate states: highly self-conscious extreme subjectivity, and solipsistic fear that there is nothing beyond the subject. Here is a rather full cento of passages from Van den Berg: The theory of repression The inner self became necessary when contacts were devaluated A pure landscape, not just a backdrop for human actions: nature, nature as the middle ages did not know it, an exterior nature closed within itself and self-sufficient, an exterior from which the human element has, in principle, been removed entirely.
It is things-in-their-farewell, and therefore is as moving as a farewell of our dearest The inner life was like a haunted house.
But what else could it be? It contained everything. Everything extraneous had been put into it. The entire history of mankind had to be the history of the individual. Everything that had previously belonged to everybody, everything that had been collective property and had existed in the world in which everyone lived, had to be contained by the individual.
It could not be expected that things would be quiet in the inner self. Almost unnoticed—for everybody was watching the inner self—the landscape changed. It became estranged, and consequently it became visible What prompts the libido to leave the inner self?
In Freud asked himself this question—the essential question of his psychology, and the essential question of the psychology of the twentieth century. His answer ended the process of interiorization.
It is: the libido leaves the inner self when the inner self has become too full. Objects are of importance only in an extreme urgency. Human beings, too. Nuttall sees Wordsworth as another victim of the hidden solipsism inherent in British empiricism from Locke onwards. But I think it correct nevertheless to say of Wordsworth what Van den Berg says of Rousseau, that the love of that answering subject, nature, is a love that distances and estranges nature.
Internalization and estrangement are humanly one and the same process. Let us map Tintern Abbey together.
The poem consists of five verseparagraphs, of which the first three lines 1—57 form a single movement that alternates the ratios of clinamen and tessera. The fourth verseparagraph is the second movement lines 58— and goes from the ratio of kenosis to a daemonization that brings in the Sublime. The fifth and final verse-paragraph is the third and last movement lines — , and alternates the ratios of askesis and apophrades.
To abandon my own esoteric shorthand, lines 1—57 shuttle back and forth between dialectical images of presence and absence and representing images of parts and wholes. Lines 58— alternate images of fullness and emptiness, of gain and loss, with images of height and depth.
This is of course merely a very rough revisionary pattern, but it is there all right, in Tintern Abbey as in hundreds of good poems afterwards, down to the present day. What is unique to each poem is the peculiar balance between tropes and defenses in these ratiostructures or patterns-of-images.
But the price of this breakthrough is considerable, and can be traced up the interpretative ladder of a scene or scheme of Instruction. The more you limit yourself, the more fertile you become in invention The more resourceful in changing the mode of cultivation one can be, the better; but every particular change will always come under the general categories of remembering and forgetting. Life in its entirety moves in these two currents, and hence it is essential to have them under control.
Hope was one of the dubious gifts of Prometheus; instead of giving men the foreknowledge of the immortals, he gave them hope. To forget—all men wish to forget, and when something unpleasant happens, they always say: Oh, that one might forget!
But forgetting is an art that must be practiced beforehand. The ability to forget is conditioned upon the method of remembering The more poetically one remembers, the more easily one forgets; for remembering poetically is really only another expression for forgetting Nature is great because it has forgotten that it was chaos; but this thought is subject to revival at any time Forgetting and remembering are thus identical arts. We cannot apply Kierkegaard to the opening of Tintern Abbey, or Van den Berg to its close, without de-idealizing our view of this great poem.
Wordsworthian criticism at its best has over-idealized Tintern Abbey. Who is right, Kierkegaard or Wordsworth? Shall we believe the poet in his own self-presentation? Once again I see These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms, Green to the very door; and wreaths of smoke Sent up, in silence, from among the trees! Every interpreter has noted, surely correctly, the importance of the more comprehensive sense, hearing, having the primacy over sight, here at the outset of the poem.
Wordsworth does not commence talking about the renewal of vision in any literal sense. Once again he hears these waters, with their murmur that to his ears oddly marks them as inland. Psychologically, the phenomenon is the primary, defense of reactionformation, the opposition of a particular self-limitation to a repressed desire by manifesting the opposite of the desire. John in 38 Harold Bloom Revelation. Hartman does not overestimate the strength, for it is indeed beyond estimation, but he discounts the anxiety that pervades the poem, an anxiety that mixes worries about imaginative priority with more overt worries about the continuity of imagination between the younger and the older Wordsworth.
William Wordsworth. He had three brothers Richard, John and Christopher and one sister, Dorothy.
He was the closest to his sister with whom he shared an intense and lifelong friendship. As a child, he attended the grammar school near Cockermouth Church and Ann Birkett's school at Penrith. After the death of his mother in , he was sent to Hawkshead Grammar School in Lancashire. His father died in The untimely deaths of both his parents meant that he was separated from his beloved sister who was sent away to live with relatives. His mother died when he was eight. His father worked as a lawyer to James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale, a notoriously corrupt man who had earned the local nickname "Wicked Jimmy.
Male Writers. Aries Writers.
British Poets. British Writers. It was during his stint at Hawkshead Grammar School that young William realized his firm love for poetry.
The publication of a sonnet in The European Magazine in launched his career as a poet. While studying at St. This experience deeply impacted his interests and sympathies in life, sensitized him to the troubles of the common man, and had an intense influence on his poetry. He met the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Aries Men. It was ultimately named and published by his widow Mary three months after his death.
As a student, he toured France and fell in love with a French Woman, Annette Vallon with whom he had a daughter, Caroline. Even though he did not marry Annette, he did his best to support his daughter. In , he married his childhood friend Mary Hutchinson. The couple had five children, three of whom predeceased their father.
His sister Dorothy lived with him throughout his life. After the death of his daughter Dora in , the devastated father stopped writing poetry completely. William Wordsworth died after a short illness on 23 April In , he met John "Walking" Stewart, an English traveler and philosopher who had a major influence on his poetry.
See the events in life of William Wordsworth in Chronological Order. Article Title. Identify Singers By Eyes. Identify Actors By Beard. Identify Actors By Childhood Pics. Identify Actors By Eyes. Identify Actresses By Childhood Pics. Identify These Bollywood Actresses. Identify These Actors.