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During the course of the upcoming season, archaeologi- cal survey in the Upper Galilee in Israel will identify a site to be explored beginning in as part of a UCLA—Hebrew Union College collaboration.
Settlement in this region provides a proxy for high- land settlement in the West Bank and study of the chronology of this settlement pattern, as well as the various subsistence and lifestyle strategies that these communi- ties pursued during the transition between the Late Bronze and Iron ages.
With chronological data provided by radiocarbon samples and through artifact assemblages, we will seek to clarify the rela- tionship between highland and Figure 4. An Egyptian anthropoid sarcophagus lid from Israel.
In I will join the excavations of Tel the early Iron Age but especially for the study of early Dan in northern Israel, together with several gradu- Israel.
Ceramic production is of particular importance ate students from UCLA. The site has been excavated given the limited resources of highland communities by David Ilan and Yifat Thareani since , and and may provide one avenue for understanding how previously hosted excavations by Avraham Biran from sites related to one another. Dov ; Ilan forthcoming.
These, however, address These collaborations will include several broader only the excavations conducted until , when the studies of the period. In early the project will types of analysis now possible were not available. Our host a conference at UCLA addressing agency in the efforts afford an opportunity, therefore, to extend early Iron Age. Compared to the ethnicity-centered high-resolution analysis to early Iron Age contexts and approaches dominating traditional discussions of to begin to address the dating and further character- identity in this period, an agency-based approach ization of such communities.
Ben-Dov, Rachel editor. Annual modern political boundaries where topics touch upon of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology Bayesian Analysis of Radio- carbon Dates.
Radiocarbon 51 1 — So further study of anthropoid sarcophagi, an Egyptian coffin type from Burke, Aaron A. The Jaffa Cultural Heritage Project 2. Monumenta 4 , may provide insights into identity, the function of Archaeologica Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of these coffins within local funerary practices, and the Archaeology Press. Near East for more than a century—toward question- Finkelstein, Israel, Zvi Lederman, and Shlomo Bunimovitz edi- oriented, multidisciplinary, collaborative research on tors.
Highlands of Many Cultures: The Southern a larger regional scale. Site-based research remains Samaria Survey, The Sites. Monograph Series If Journal of logical research in the Near East, sites functioned as Archaeological Science: Reports — Levant — Dan IV, Avraham Biran research programs. Nonethe- Religion. We seek to recenter inquiry and the Aftermath of Empire.
Cambridge: Cambridge on major research questions away from questions University Press. Burke editors. The long-term excavations at individual sites. Explora- History and Archaeology of Jaffa 1. The site, like so further study.
This that were not of principal interest. Archaeological Inquiry into ally less interest. Analysis of standing relationship of Near Eastern archaeology the results will continue for several more years as we with the archaeology of the classical, medieval, and prepare the data for publication. While such a project premodern periods at too many sites. It remains true can be considered a success on many levels, the today, even if greater resources and research design diverse range of studies it yielded challenges a director narratives are proclaimed.
While it is hard to know to focus the research on specific topics and perhaps how much of what has been excavated was excavated reveals the greatest problem plaguing mound-based under these circumstances, I estimate that as much as archaeology in the Near East. It is simply stretched too three-quarters of typical excavation efforts are regu- thin on too many fronts.
Excavations at the Ramesses Gate in Jaffa, Traditional characterizations of the collapse of the At Jaffa we were fortunate that one period, the Late Bronze Age in this region are well summarized in end of the Late Bronze Age, featured particularly the recent book BC: The author describes a perfect only partially exposed but had not been published and storm of calamities: Following a tions, and invasions, and the impact of centuries of decade of study and excavation, our efforts expose the imperial engagements across the Near East.
While the drawbacks of traditional approaches to Near East- work wonderfully summarizes the question, which has ern archaeological research, as described above, but changed little since the mid-twentieth century, it may also the limits of our understanding of the end of the have the unintended and unfortunate effect of reify- Bronze Age, underscoring the need for a more holistic ing notions of collapse that have been challenged in approach to shed light on the transition between more recent scholarly literature McAnany and Yoffee the Late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age in the Furthermore, the book predominantly laments eastern Mediterranean.
In Jaffa, this period was at the end of an era of supposed greatness, which takes the center of our study of an Egyptian New Kingdom as its baseline the achievements of the Egyptian and fortress that stood at the site for about three and a Hittite Empires of the Late Bronze Age, from the per- half centuries and was destroyed in the second half of spectives of the empires. The resulting narrative is an the twelfth century BC.
Well-preserved remains and a effective characterization of the state of the research considerable investment in analyzing these strata have that, despite a century of intensive study, has departed exposed how little we truly know about the decline of little from its original roots. Collective, scholarly knowledge of standing become evident: While there Lacking in most assessments is the scrutiny of long- is little to dispute in his presentation of the data, there held assumptions concerning population movements, remains much debate concerning the final analysis, shifts in settlement patterns, and local chronologies of namely the exact date of their arrival, its impetus, and change.
Events such as revolutions, climate change, the character of earliest Philistine settlement. Truly regime change, the movement of refugees, the work lacking from decades of research on the Philistines of mercenaries, and migration across the Middle East are rigorous efforts to employ scientific techniques to in our own time have brought the issues of such a address these questions, such as radiocarbon dat- transitional period into sharp relief.
Each of these ing and organic residue analysis of vessels. For this subjects, and a number of others, are nearly daily in reason, the arrival of the Philistines from the Aegean the news. For the first time since the Second World remains tentatively based on textual grounds for a War, we recognize that these subjects can converge to terminus post quem of around or BC. Were they settled Egyptian prisoners of war, treatments of the Bronze Age—Iron Age transition are invaders, colonists, or a mix of all of these, and must stories of resilience, adaptation, and the emergence of we rely on sparse Egyptian sources for consideration new identities and nascent states, which are undeni- of this?
Thus, while Philistines and their identity are ably the result of the erosion of earlier political and among the great success stories of the study of the economic regimes and the paradigms of power they transition between the Late Bronze Age and the Iron embodied. Among the success stories in this vein are Age, research of them poignantly reveals the overall Figure 2.
Recent work in Jordan has offered exam- following up on the results of our excavations in ples of similar, contemporaneous subsistence strate- Jaffa, I contemplated how archaeological research gies Porter , and such examples are far more can interrogate, in a new way, the transitional years appropriate for understanding rural communities in between the end of the Late Bronze Age and the the highlands of ancient Israel.
Furthermore, terraces, early Iron Age — BC , particularly in the once thought to be the result of early Iron Age efforts southern Levant, where archaeological research has by Israelites to cultivate land in the highlands, are now been conducted for nearly a century and where there identified as late Roman and Byzantine, having noth- is ample documentation for the emergence of early ing to do with frontier, highland settlement by Isra- Iron Age states such as Israel.
The last real strides in elites Gibson et al. Lastly, this direction were also achieved nearly 40 years ago, there is an increasing realization that certain phe- when archaeological surveys of the West Bank added nomena previously labeled as nomadic in nature, may significantly to our understanding of settlement in the reflect refugee resettlement.
Consequently, the entire highlands Finkelstein et al. This provided a characterization of the motivations, nature, and agents major supplement to conclusions that up to that point of early Iron Age settlement appears to be flawed.
Few new ideas entered the archaeological record. As historical sources, books the debate, and thinking on the subject remains largely such as Judges and 1—2 Samuel have much to offer where it was in when The Archaeology of Isra- for our understandings of socioeconomic regimes elite Settlement was published by Israel Finkelstein, and political conditions in what we might call post- one of the scholars at the center of the study of the collapse Canaan.
However, the biblical texts make no earlier archaeological surveys. Consequently, modern thorough effort to provide a seamless narrative of the archaeological techniques such as radiocarbon dating, history of Canaan, and they inform the reader only botanical analysis, and organic residue analysis among about traditions that precede Judges.
The attention others have played no role in refining our understand- of the audience is turned away from Canaan to an ing of this period and its settlements. Schol- new analytical techniques and methods, our under- ars are compelled to reconcile, therefore, the data of standing of the early Iron Age remains fundamentally the archaeological record for Late Bronze Age Canaan stagnant. One cause is the effect of repeated but and the biblical narratives of early Iron Age Israel with largely untested truisms.
Among these is the notion only a limited role for the biblical texts as a historical that the sedentarization of pastoralists was the phe- source, beginning with the book of Judges.
Central to this has been uncritical a project on the southern Levant? The answer is quite acceptance of the notion that because Israel has been simple: Across the studies they reviewed, Reisenho-. Women also demonstrated behaviors that could be. It is clear from the existing. First, a. As sur-. Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families 23 3. A third limitation of the applicability of the TTM to the pro-.
Unlike other health behavior issues to which the TTM. In partic-. Fourth, another limitation of the application of the. The same behaviors. Because of this complexity, researchers have. Experiences of IPV. In particular, looking at movement between stages. Therefore, it is useful to examine the processes. Turning points. As Baly As such, turning points may not immediately result. However, turning points can instigate change within. In this section, we.
What ever the patt ern of abuse i n the relati onship,. It was ofte n likely that th e women. Some cognit ive shifts th at. Thus, turning points may be. In order to identify the turning points that led women in abu-.
The first turning point,. Here, women realized the nature and severity. For some, the realization. The second turning point, which moved participants from. Here, the mothers noted the pileup of abuse and often increas-. The third turning point. For some women, the turning point here moved them to the. However, some of the others moved back to con-.
The fourth turning point occurred between action. This occurred. As all of the participants were mothers, the identified turning. Khaw and. First, they highlight the possibil-. Second, these findings underscore.
Despite the importance of these. For some victims, turning points were predetermined, such as if. Baly noted that triggers or excuses. Most recently, Catallo et al.
Catallo et al. The turning points noted by. A turning point may be a precursor to. Although the existing research provides examples of the. Therefore, a need exists for additional research to further. To this end, the. Phenomenological research methodology was used to. In the next section, we describe the methodology. Crowe, under review. In this section, we focus on the meth-. Participants were survivors of past IPV who had been out. All partici-. In order to. All participant recruitment was done electronically.
In additio n, snowball sampling was used. Regarding ethnicity, for. American 2. Participants represented. Most Participants described their past experiences with IPV. The most common response. The average length of these relation-. The vast majority This study used a survey that was designed specifically by the. All participants had to complete an eligibility. Three parts of the sur-. The data for this study were derived from the. This may not have occurred immedi-.
If so, please describe that point here, and how it. A phenomenological data analysis process was used because a. Prior to beginning the data analyses, the researchers bracketed.
The assump-. The data analysis process was grounded in phenomenologi-. First, the research-. Once all three researchers. From there, the researchers wrote textural. The goal was to iden-. Steps taken to enhance the trustworthiness of the findings.
Our phenomenological data analysis process revealed six turn-. In addition, a 7th. For all themes, illustrative quotes. Turning Point 1: Facing the Threat of Severe Violence. I knew my then husband had tried to kill me. I knew I had to get. One participant said that sexual abuse led to. Although, I was too traumatized. It was a gradual. A participant shared the following experience,.
The night I left for good he was. My turning point was the final time that I experienced abuse from. He was in a drunken rage and I was trying to calm him. When he realized that I would.
At this point I was calling and he walked to me, snatched. He got on top. I vowed that at this point if I survived that I. As I am still here That was my turning point. I rea-. In sum, the turning point of facing the threat of severe violence. Turning Point 2: Changing Their Perspective About the. This theme addressed cognitive shifts that occurred for partici-. These cogni-. He never.
He only cared about the. The perfect picture! But it was. I slowly withdrew myself from the relationship until. I felt like I was strong enough to leave. At that point, I rea-. He was wrong an d I deserved. I had known for months that I needed to end.
I was. It took six months of. He was. I went to move his hand. I left with my dog and we. I knew that it was over. BUT, I contin-. It took 2 years for me to. The sex. Turning Point 3: Learning About the Dynamics of Abuse.
This theme was different from Turn-. For some participants, this new. My husband and I separated for the last time. That helped me see that allowing our relationship to be. Other participants learned a bout the abuse dynamics from. I also have. As one survi-. I told. Turning Point 4: Experiencing an Intervention From. This theme addressed statements about turning points based on. Nobody knew about.
When oth-. For me, I needed social. The things that happened after this calling doctor, police. He told them I was crazy like he. But this time the police heard my. They told me what I needed to do to help myself and I. I went down to the. Turning Point 5: Realizing the Impact of Violence. Statements in this theme related to turning points resulting. Some of these statements. I had family pick. Other statements in this theme related to participants seeing.
The following quotes provide examples of this. I had lost worth in myself and he had made. I would not promote the. My boys deserved to be. I knew that was it, my abuser had to go! I love. Everything became clear and I became strong and I. My children were. As the participants quoted in this theme show, some survi-. Turning Point 6: The Relationship Being Terminated by.
Turning points in this theme stemmed from abusive partners. In some cases, participants reported that their partners were. In other cases, partici-. Very few participants stated that they had never had a specific. I never had a turning point but always knew I needed to get out of.
Therefore I felt. I thought that because he was in jail, it.
I think a big problem with people staying with their. I feel that people think if they leave their current situation,. Although it was not common for participants to be unable to.
This study identified six major categories of turning points that. This study.