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THOMAS EDISON PDF

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Thomas Alva Edison lit up the world with his invention of the electric light. Without him, the Thomas A. Edison was born in Milan, Ohio, on February 11, Chemists and Chemistry that Transformed Our Lives. Thomas Edison, Chemist. Edison & Ford Winter Estates, May 25, Thomas Edison National Historical . For years I have been talking with participants in my innovation workshops around the world about the American inventor, Thomas. Edison, and recommending.


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THOMAS ALVA EDISON. Birth and Parentage. Thomas Alva Edison, probably the greatest inventor that. America has produced, was born at Milan, Ohio. The History Of The Electric Light Bulb & Thomas Edison. (1)Electricity is a form of energy. Electricity is the flow of electrons. All matter is made up of atoms, and. Ian Wills Thomas Edison and the authority of inventions Thomas Edison and the authority of inventions Ian Wills Unit for History and Philosophy of Science.

Dyer and T. The biography of one of the greatest scientists of the 20th Century, Thomas Alva Edison, who invented more modern-day solutions than anyone else in the scientific world. A transgender experience, the perspective of redefining existence by being reborn. It is my real life experience through three and a half years of domestic violence as a teen where I was almost killed twice. The book is a short inspirational tale of the adventures and experiences of a polio survivor from the early 's. The book is full of amusing anecdotes expl

Around the middle of his career, Edison attributed the hearing impairment to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in a boxcar caught fire and he was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, Michigan , along with his apparatus and chemicals.

In his later years, he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears. He became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J.

MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michigan , was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. He also studied qualitative analysis and conducted chemical experiments on the train until he left the job. These talents eventually led him to found 14 companies, including General Electric , still one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. Edison requested the night shift, which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes—reading and experimenting.

Eventually, the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night in , he was working with a lead—acid battery when he spilled sulfuric acid onto the floor. It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss's desk below. The next morning Edison was fired.

Patent 90, , which was granted on June 1, One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope , who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey , home, while Edison worked for Samuel Laws at the Gold Indicator Company.

Pope and Edison founded their own company in October , working as electrical engineers and inventors. Edison began developing a multiplex telegraphic system, which could send two messages simultaneously, in Edison's major innovation was the establishment of an industrial research lab in Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development under his direction. His staff was generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research, and he drove them hard to produce results.

William Joseph Hammer , a consulting electrical engineer, started working for Edison and began his duties as a laboratory assistant in December He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, iron ore separator , electric lighting , and other developing inventions.

However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device see Hammer Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps. In , he was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works.

According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting". Sprague , a competent mathematician and former naval officer , was recruited by Edward H. Johnson and joined the Edison organization in Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis conducted by his assistants such as Francis Robbins Upton, for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by an analysis of Ohm's Law , Joule's Law and economics.

About a dozen were design patents , which protect an ornamental design for up to a year period. As in most patents, the inventions he described were improvements over prior art. The phonograph patent, in contrast, was unprecedented as describing the first device to record and reproduce sounds. Edison said he wanted the lab to have "a stock of almost every conceivable material".

With Menlo Park, Edison had created the first industrial laboratory concerned with creating knowledge and then controlling its application. Problems playing this file? See media help. Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey , with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention that first gained him wider notice was the phonograph in Despite its limited sound quality and that the recordings could be played only a few times, the phonograph made Edison a celebrity.

Joseph Henry , president of the National Academy of Sciences and one of the most renowned electrical scientists in the US, described Edison as "the most ingenious inventor in this country Carbon telephone transmitter In , Edison began work to improve the microphone for telephones at that time called a "transmitter" by developing a carbon microphone , which consists of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon that would change resistance with the pressure of sound waves.

A steady direct current is passed between the plates through the granules and the varying resistance results in a modulation of the current, creating a varying electric current that reproduces the varying pressure of the sound wave.

Up to that point, microphones, such as the ones developed by Johann Philipp Reis and Alexander Graham Bell , worked by generating a weak current. The carbon microphone works by modulating a direct current and, subsequently, using a transformer to transfer the signal so generated to the telephone line. Edison was one of many inventors working on the problem of creating a usable microphone for telephony by having it modulate an electrical current passed through it.

This type was put in use in [41] and was used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver until the s. Electric light Main article: Incandescent light bulb Thomas Edison's first successful light bulb model, used in public demonstration at Menlo Park, December In , Edison began working on a system of electrical illumination, something he hoped could compete with gas and oil based lighting. Many earlier inventors had previously devised incandescent lamps, including Alessandro Volta 's demonstration of a glowing wire in and inventions by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans.

Others who developed early and commercially impractical incandescent electric lamps included Humphry Davy , James Bowman Lindsay , Moses G.

Farmer , [44] William E. Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as an extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high electric current drawn, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially. This lamp must have high resistance and use relatively low voltage around volts. The idea of using this particular raw material originated from Edison's recalling his examination of a few threads from a bamboo fishing pole while relaxing on the shore of Battle Lake in the present-day state of Wyoming , where he and other members of a scientific team had traveled so that they could clearly observe a total eclipse of the sun on July 29, , from the Continental Divide.

Patent Electric-Lamp. Issued January 27, Morgan , Spencer Trask , [54] and the members of the Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, , in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said: "We will make electricity so cheap that only the rich will burn candles.

Villard was impressed and requested Edison install his electric lighting system aboard Villard's company's new steamer, the Columbia. Although hesitant at first, Edison agreed to Villard's request.

Most of the work was completed in May , and the Columbia went to New York City , where Edison and his personnel installed Columbia's new lighting system.

Edison pdf thomas

The Columbia was Edison's first commercial application for his incandescent light bulb. The Edison equipment was removed from Columbia in The cause of his deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle-ear infections.

Around the middle of his career, Edison attributed the hearing impairment to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in a boxcar caught fire and he was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, Michigan , along with his apparatus and chemicals.

In his later years, he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears. Edison's family moved to Port Huron, Michigan after the canal owners successfully kept the railroad out of Milan Ohio in and business declined. He became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J.

MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michigan , was so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. He also studied qualitative analysis and conducted chemical experiments on the train until he left the job. Edison obtained the exclusive right to sell newspapers on the road, and, with the aid of four assistants, he set in type and printed the Grand Trunk Herald , which he sold with his other papers. These talents eventually led him to found 14 companies, including General Electric , still one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world.

In , at the age of 19, Edison moved to Louisville, Kentucky , where, as an employee of Western Union , he worked the Associated Press bureau news wire. Edison requested the night shift, which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes—reading and experimenting. Eventually, the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night in , he was working with a lead—acid battery when he spilled sulfuric acid onto the floor.

It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss's desk below. The next morning Edison was fired. His first patent was for the electric vote recorder, U. Patent 90, , which was granted on June 1, One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Pope , who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jersey , home, while Edison worked for Samuel Laws at the Gold Indicator Company.

Pope and Edison founded their own company in October , working as electrical engineers and inventors. Edison began developing a multiplex telegraphic system, which could send two messages simultaneously, in Edison's major innovation was the establishment of an industrial research lab in Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development under his direction.

His staff was generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research, and he drove them hard to produce results. William Joseph Hammer , a consulting electrical engineer, started working for Edison and began his duties as a laboratory assistant in December He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, iron ore separator , electric lighting , and other developing inventions. However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device see Hammer Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps.

In , he was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting".

Sprague , a competent mathematician and former naval officer , was recruited by Edward H. Johnson and joined the Edison organization in Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis conducted by his assistants such as Francis Robbins Upton, for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by an analysis of Ohm's Law , Joule's Law and economics.

Nearly all of Edison's patents were utility patents, which were protected for a year period and included inventions or processes that are electrical, mechanical, or chemical in nature. About a dozen were design patents , which protect an ornamental design for up to a year period. As in most patents, the inventions he described were improvements over prior art.

The phonograph patent, in contrast, was unprecedented as describing the first device to record and reproduce sounds. In just over a decade, Edison's Menlo Park laboratory had expanded to occupy two city blocks. Edison said he wanted the lab to have "a stock of almost every conceivable material".

Over his desk, Edison displayed a placard with Sir Joshua Reynolds ' famous quotation: With Menlo Park, Edison had created the first industrial laboratory concerned with creating knowledge and then controlling its application. Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jersey , with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention that first gained him wider notice was the phonograph in His first phonograph recorded on tinfoil around a grooved cylinder.

Despite its limited sound quality and that the recordings could be played only a few times, the phonograph made Edison a celebrity.

Joseph Henry , president of the National Academy of Sciences and one of the most renowned electrical scientists in the US, described Edison as "the most ingenious inventor in this country In , Edison began work to improve the microphone for telephones at that time called a "transmitter" by developing a carbon microphone , which consists of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon that would change resistance with the pressure of sound waves.

A steady direct current is passed between the plates through the granules and the varying resistance results in a modulation of the current, creating a varying electric current that reproduces the varying pressure of the sound wave.

Edison pdf thomas

Up to that point, microphones, such as the ones developed by Johann Philipp Reis and Alexander Graham Bell , worked by generating a weak current. The carbon microphone works by modulating a direct current and, subsequently, using a transformer to transfer the signal so generated to the telephone line. Edison was one of many inventors working on the problem of creating a usable microphone for telephony by having it modulate an electrical current passed through it.

Edison used the carbon microphone concept in to create an improved telephone for Western Union. This type was put in use in [41] and was used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver until the s.

In , Edison began working on a system of electrical illumination, something he hoped could compete with gas and oil based lighting. Many earlier inventors had previously devised incandescent lamps, including Alessandro Volta 's demonstration of a glowing wire in and inventions by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans. Others who developed early and commercially impractical incandescent electric lamps included Humphry Davy , James Bowman Lindsay , Moses G. Farmer , [44] William E.

Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as an extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high electric current drawn, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially. This lamp must have high resistance and use relatively low voltage around volts. After many experiments, first with carbon filaments and then with platinum and other metals, Edison returned to a carbon filament.

The idea of using this particular raw material originated from Edison's recalling his examination of a few threads from a bamboo fishing pole while relaxing on the shore of Battle Lake in the present-day state of Wyoming , where he and other members of a scientific team had traveled so that they could clearly observe a total eclipse of the sun on July 29, , from the Continental Divide.

Morgan , Spencer Trask , [54] and the members of the Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31, , in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said: Villard was impressed and requested Edison install his electric lighting system aboard Villard's company's new steamer, the Columbia. Although hesitant at first, Edison agreed to Villard's request.

Most of the work was completed in May , and the Columbia went to New York City , where Edison and his personnel installed Columbia' s new lighting system.

The Columbia was Edison's first commercial application for his incandescent light bulb. The Edison equipment was removed from Columbia in Latimer had received a patent in January for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of carbon filaments for light bulbs.

Latimer worked as an engineer, a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigation on electric lights. Sawyer and was, therefore, invalid.

Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6, , when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. Mahen Theatre in Brno in what is now the Czech Republic , opened in , and was the first public building in the world to use Edison's electric lamps.

Francis Jehl , Edison's assistant in the invention of the lamp, supervised the installation. After devising a commercially viable electric light bulb on October 21, , Edison developed an electric " utility " to compete with the existing gas light utilities. On September 4, , Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system, which provided volts direct current DC to 59 customers in lower Manhattan.

In January , Edison switched on the first steam-generating power station at Holborn Viaduct in London. The DC supply system provided electricity supplies to street lamps and several private dwellings within a short distance of the station. On January 19, , the first standardized incandescent electric lighting system employing overhead wires began service in Roselle, New Jersey. As Edison expanded his direct current DC power delivery system, he received stiff competition from companies installing alternating current AC systems.

From the early s AC arc lighting systems for streets and large spaces had been an expanding business in the US. With the development of transformers in Europe and by Westinghouse Electric in the US in —, it became possible to transmit AC long distances over thinner and cheaper wires, and "step down" the voltage at the destination for distribution to users.

This allowed AC to be used in street lighting and in lighting for small business and domestic customers, the market Edison's patented low voltage DC incandescent lamp system was designed to supply. Edison's DC plants could not deliver electricity to customers more than one mile from the plant, and left a patchwork of unsupplied customers between plants.

Small cities and rural areas could not afford an Edison style system at all, leaving a large part of the market without electrical service.

AC companies expanded into this gap. Edison expressed views that AC was unworkable and the high voltages used were dangerous. As George Westinghouse installed his first AC systems in , Thomas Edison struck out personally against his chief rival stating, " Just as certain as death, Westinghouse will kill a customer within six months after he puts in a system of any size. He has got a new thing and it will require a great deal of experimenting to get it working practically.

One notion is that the inventor could not grasp the more abstract theories behind AC and was trying to avoid developing a system he did not understand. Edison also appeared to have been worried about the high voltage from misinstalled AC systems killing customers and hurting the sales of electric power systems in general.

By the end of , Edison Electric was losing market share to Westinghouse, who had built 68 AC-based power stations to Edison's DC-based stations. Parallel to expanding competition between Edison and the AC companies was rising public furor over a series of deaths in the spring of caused by pole mounted high voltage alternating current lines. This turned into a media frenzy against high voltage alternating current and the seemingly greedy and callous lighting companies that used it.

Brown in a propaganda campaign, aiding Brown in the public electrocution of animals with AC, and supported legislation to control and severely limit AC installations and voltages to the point of making it an ineffective power delivery system in what was now being referred to as a "battle of currents". The development of the electric chair was used in an attempt to portray AC as having a greater lethal potential than DC and smear Westinghouse at the same time via Edison colluding with Brown and Westinghouse's chief AC rival, the Thomson-Houston Electric Company, to make sure the first electric chair was powered by a Westinghouse AC generator.

Thomas Edison's staunch anti-AC tactics were not sitting well with his own stockholders. By the early s, Edison's company was generating much smaller profits than its AC rivals, and the War of Currents would come to an end in with Edison forced out of controlling his own company. That year, the financier J. General Electric now controlled three-quarters of the US electrical business and would compete with Westinghouse for the AC market.

Edison moved from Menlo Park after the death of his first wife, Mary, in , and downloadd a home known as " Glenmont " in as a wedding gift for his second wife, Mina, in Llewellyn Park in West Orange, New Jersey.

Edison pdf thomas

Edison and Mina spent many winters at their home in Fort Myers, and Edison tried to find a domestic source of natural rubber. Due to the security concerns around World War I , Edison suggested forming a science and industry committee to provide advice and research to the US military, and he headed the Naval Consulting Board in Edison became concerned with America's reliance on foreign supply of rubber and was determined to find a native supply of rubber. Edison's work on rubber took place largely at his research laboratory in Fort Myers, which has been designated as a National Historic Chemical Landmark.

Initially, only Ford and Firestone were to contribute funds to the project while Edison did all the research. Edison did the majority of the research and planting, sending results and sample rubber residues to his West Orange Lab. Edison employed a two-part Acid-base extraction , to derive latex from the plant material after it was dried and crushed to a powder.

Edison pdf thomas

Edison decided on Solidago leavenworthii , also known as Leavenworth's Goldenrod. During the New York Electrical show, Edison told representatives of the copper industry it was a shame he didn't have a "chunk of it". The representatives decided to give a cubic foot of solid copper weighing pounds with their gratitude inscribed on it in appreciation for his part in the "continuous stimulation in the copper industry". Edison is credited with designing and producing the first commercially available fluoroscope , a machine that uses X-rays to take radiographs.

History: Thomas Alva Edison

The fundamental design of Edison's fluoroscope is still in use today, although Edison abandoned the project after nearly losing his own eyesight and seriously injuring his assistant, Clarence Dally. Dally made himself an enthusiastic human guinea pig for the fluoroscopy project and was exposed to a poisonous dose of radiation.

He later died of injuries related to the exposure. In , a shaken Edison said: Edison invented a highly sensitive device, that he named the tasimeter , which measured infrared radiation. His impetus for its creation was the desire to measure the heat from the solar corona during the total Solar eclipse of July 29, The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy.

With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker , the first electricity-based broadcast system. On August 9, , Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph. Edison was also granted a patent for the motion picture camera or "Kinetograph".

He did the electromechanical design while his employee W. Dickson , a photographer, worked on the photographic and optical development. Much of the credit for the invention belongs to Dickson. This device was installed in penny arcades, where people could watch short, simple films.

The kinetograph and kinetoscope were both first publicly exhibited May 20, In April , Thomas Armat 's Vitascope , manufactured by the Edison factory and marketed in Edison's name, was used to project motion pictures in public screenings in New York City.

Later, he exhibited motion pictures with voice soundtrack on cylinder recordings, mechanically synchronized with the film. Maguire and Joseph D. Baucus a dozen machines. Bush placed from October 17, , the first kinetoscopes in London. In the last three months of , the Continental Commerce Company sold hundreds of kinetoscopes in Europe i.

The first kinetoscopes arrived in Belgium at the Fairs in early The main investors in this company were Belgian industrialists. The businessman Ladislas-Victor Lewitzki, living in London but active in Belgium and France, took the initiative in starting this business. In , he also became a shareholder of the Biograph and Mutoscope Company for France. Edison's film studio made close to 1, films.

The majority of the productions were short films showing everything from acrobats to parades to fire calls including titles such as Fred Ott's Sneeze , The Kiss , The Great Train Robbery , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , and the first Frankenstein film in In , when the owners of Luna Park, Coney Island announced they would execute Topsy the elephant by strangulation, poisoning, and electrocution with the electrocution part ultimately killing the elephant , Edison Manufacturing sent a crew to film it, releasing it that same year with the title Electrocuting an Elephant.

Edison: His Life and Inventions

As the film business expanded, competing exhibitors routinely copied and exhibited each other's films. Many of these paper prints survived longer and in better condition than the actual films of that era. In , Edison started the Motion Picture Patents Company , which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios commonly known as the Edison Trust. Thomas Edison was the first honorary fellow of the Acoustical Society of America , which was founded in Edison said his favorite movie was The Birth of a Nation.

He thought that talkies had "spoiled everything" for him. They concentrate on the voice now and have forgotten how to act. I can sense it more than you because I am deaf. Starting in the late s, Thomas Edison became interested and involved with mining.

High-grade iron ore was scarce on the east coast of the United States and Edison tried to mine low-grade ore. Edison developed a process using rollers and crushers that could pulverize rocks up to 10 tons. The dust was then sent between three giant magnets that would pull the iron ore from the dust.

Despite the failure of his mining company, the Edison Ore Milling Company , Edison used some of the materials and equipment to produce cement. In , Edison visited an industrial exhibition in the Sudbury area in Ontario, Canada and thought nickel and cobalt deposits there could be used in his production of electrical equipment.

He returned as a mining prospector and is credited with the original discovery of the Falconbridge ore body. His attempts to mine the ore body were not successful, and he abandoned his mining claim in The Edison Storage Battery Company was founded in With this company, Edison exploited his invention of the accumulator.

In , people already worked for the company. The first accumulators were produced for electric cars, but there were several defects. Several customers complained about the products.

Thomas Edison

When the capital of the company was spent, Edison paid for the company with his private money. Edison did not demonstrate a mature product until At the start of World War I , the American chemical industry was primitive.

Most chemicals were imported from Europe. The outbreak of war in August, , resulted in an immediate shortage of imported chemicals. One of particular importance to Edison was phenol , which was used to make phonograph records—presumably as phenolic resins of the Bakelite type. At the time, phenol came from coal as a by-product of coke oven gases or manufactured gas for gaslighting.

Phenol could be nitrated to picric acid and converted to ammonium picrate , a shock resistant high explosive suitable for use in artillery shells. Britain also blockaded supplies from Germany. Edison responded by undertaking production of phenol at his Silver Lake, NJ , facility using processes developed by his chemists.

Edison: His Life and Inventions, by F. L. Dyer and T. C. Martin: FREE Book Download

Production began the first week of September, one month after hostilities began in Europe. Edison also manufactured aniline dyes , which previously had been supplied by the German dye trust. Other wartime products include xylene , p-phenylenediamine , shellac , and pyrax. Wartime shortages made these ventures profitable. In , his production capacity was fully committed by midyear.

Phenol was a critical material because two derivatives were in high growth phases. Bakelite , the original thermoset plastic , had been invented in Aspirin , too was a phenol derivative. Invented in had become a block buster drug. Bayer had acquired a plant to manufacture in the US in Rensselaer, NY , but struggled to find phenol to keep their plant running during the war. Edison was able to oblige. Bayer relied on Chemische Fabrik von Heyden , in Piscataway, NJ , to convert phenol to salicylic acid, which they converted to aspirin.

See Great Phenol plot. It is said that German companies bought up supplies of phenol to block production of ammonium picrate. Edison preferred not to sell phenol for military uses. He sold his surplus to Bayer, who had it converted to salicylic acid by Heyden, some of which was exported.

Henry Ford , the automobile magnate, later lived a few hundred feet away from Edison at his winter retreat in Fort Myers. Ford once worked as an engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company of Detroit and met Edison at a convention of affiliated Edison illuminating companies in Brooklyn, NY in Edison was impressed with Ford's internal combustion engine automobile and encouraged its developments.

They were friends until Edison's death. Edison and Ford undertook annual motor camping trips from to Harvey Firestone and naturalist John Burroughs also participated. He believed strongly in the organization, writing that "The Civitan Club is doing things—big things—for the community, state, and nation, and I certainly consider it an honor to be numbered in its ranks.

Edison was active in business right up to the end. Just months before his death, the Lackawanna Railroad inaugurated suburban electric train service from Hoboken to Montclair , Dover , and Gladstone, New Jersey. Electrical transmission for this service was by means of an overhead catenary system using direct current, which Edison had championed.

Despite his frail condition, Edison was at the throttle of the first electric MU Multiple-Unit train to depart Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken in September , driving the train the first mile through Hoboken yard on its way to South Orange.

This fleet of cars would serve commuters in northern New Jersey for the next 54 years until their retirement in A plaque commemorating Edison's inaugural ride can be seen today in the waiting room of Lackawanna Terminal in Hoboken, which is presently operated by New Jersey Transit. Edison was said to have been influenced by a popular fad diet in his last few years; "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours".

Enter here no download necessary. Join Now Login. Click to Preview. Martin Downloads: Book Description HTML The biography of one of the greatest scientists of the 20th Century, Thomas Alva Edison, who invented more modern-day solutions than anyone else in the scientific world. You may also like Jan