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ray-kurzweil-singularity-is-near-epub Ray Kurzweil Singularity Is Near Epub Updated a year ago. About · 0 Discussions · 0 Change Requests. Star. {epub download} The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology PDF Ebook Full Series For download this book click Button below. Title: (Epub Kindle) The Singularity Is Near When Humans Transcend Biology [ Free Ebook], Author: urtfcalsh, Name: (Epub Kindle) The.

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The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil. Read online, or download in secure EPUB format. Download PDF The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology | PDF books Ebook Free Download Here. The singularity is near: when humans transcend biology. byKurzweil, Ray For print-disabled users. Borrow this book to access EPUB and PDF files.

Lots of non-fiction. And my favorite moments reading non-fiction are when a book bitchslaps my brain and reconfigures my entire understanding of reality and my place within it. I love that. I get a lot of emails asking me for book recommendations. Gilbert is a famous Harvard psychologist who has a knack for coming up with zany experiments that show just how flawed and biased the human mind is.

The other pages are mostly him trying to prove how cool and cultured he is while explaining how much smarter he is than the following groups of people: academics, politicians, Nobel Prize winners, Wall Street analysts, economists, journalists, statisticians, historians, soccer moms, teachers, anybody who uses the bell curve, anybody in the social sciences, and anyone who disagrees with him.

So what are his handful of earth-shattering ideas in Antifragile? That due to the exponential scaling of technology , Black Swan events are becoming more common and influential than ever before.

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The resilient resists shocks and stays the same; the antifragile gets better. And wrong about tons of his analogies and examples.

But still brilliant somehow, despite himself. If This Book Could Be Summarized in An Image, That Image Would Be: Some fat, rich bald guy boring you to death over cappuccinos with inane stories about living in France and smoking skinny cigarettes with Umberto Eco while you stab yourself in the face with a sugar spoon repeatedly trying to make it all stop.

See below. Freedom of choice places the whole blame of failure on the shoulders of the individual.

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And as freedom encourages a multiplicity of attempts, it unavoidably multiplies failure. Read This Book If… …you want to know why people give up their identities for some insane cause.

He had invented psychoanalysis, brought the science of psychology to the mainstream, and was highly regarded in intellectual circles around Europe. Then World War I broke out, and destroyed, well, just about everything.

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Freud was deeply moved by the devastation and fell into a deep depression and secluded himself for much of the s. Civilization and Its Discontents was the result of this depression. The book makes one simple argument: that humans have deep, animalistic instincts to eat, kill, or fuck everything.

Freud argued that civilization could only arise when enough humans learned to repress these deeper and baser urges, to push them into the unconscious where according to his model they would fester and ultimately generate all sorts of neuroses. Freud basically came to the conclusion that as humans, we had one of two shitty options in life: 1 repress all of our basic instincts to maintain some semblance of a safe and cooperative civilization, thus making ourselves miserable and neurotic or 2 to let them all out and let shit hit the fan.

And as an Austrian Jew, he ran for the hills. The hills being London, of course. He lived out the last years of his life in a city being bombed into oblivion. And doing it convincingly. In the course of evolution, living species move forward in an epistemic maze with countless blind alleys and possibly only a single way out. The losers end up in a deadlock, and new and more complex living forms move ahead.

The Singularity Is Near by Ray Kurzweil (ebook)

On Earth, humans are the species that has advanced most in the epistemic maze. Humans are now living at a time when a single generation can witness the quick rise of energy dissipation and the parallel growth of knowledge. From our vantage point, we can oversee the full panorama of the evolution of the universe. No superior intelligence to create life.

No knowledge at the start. Life arose out of nothing as a slow, continuous growth of knowledge, and matter was moving ever farther away from equilibrium through sheer trial and error. A random walk that zigzagged through trajectories, using the accumulated knowledge; a model of the world, which was becoming ever less simple, ever more comprehensive, until a twisting curve became a straight line—a paragon of reason and rationality.

The reason why cognition has become the most important factor for accelerating evolution is straightforward: the kinetics of epistemogenesis is exponential or even hyperbolic. While the doubling time during exponential growth is constant, hyperbolic growth is characterized by the fact that the doubling time halves at every doubling of a variable.

The Singularity is Near: When Humans transcend Biology

Hyperbolic growth is linked to the notion of a mathematical singularity: a point at which the rate of change and the quantity of a variable become infinite at a finite time t m.

The human species may now be close to a particular kind of singularity commonly called the Technological Singularity: a point, at which knowledge and artificial intelligence would surpass understanding and control by humans. Ray Kurzweil and many other singularitarians have dated the Technological Singularity to the middle of the 21st century 4. But life as a whole is apparently directed towards a distinct singularity, the Epistemic Singularity.

The Technological Singularity specifically concerns the human species on Earth, while the Epistemic Singularity applies to life in the entire universe. Two variables should converge to infinity at the Epistemic Singularity: knowledge, and the distance between the objective world and its mirror image in a cognizant subject—the one that will have traversed the entire maze of epistemogenesis.

Maximum knowledge would equal omniscience. How will it comport with the body? If the brain is thoroughly instrumented with electrodes does it even need the body? After all, the body will age and become diseased with the usual cancer, cardiovascular, or other problems. A solution is to replace the aging or diseased body and support the brain by other means provided of course the brain itself is not diseased.

Basically, all the brain requires to remain functional is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid supply that provides oxygen and nutrients, and removes metabolic products, while inputs and outputs are provided by instrumenting the brain. Nanotechnology is needed to provide miniaturization of hardware components in such a device and will require external replenishment of supplies from time to time or an indwelling biological factory to provide these essential ingredients.

Well, we wouldn't. There would be no need for a biological body to provide mobility. Advances with robotic hardware, software, and nanotechnology make such a development a strong possibility. It appears likely that we could end up with a hybrid robot containing an instrumented human biological brain that controls the robotic body see Figure 1. This is a different outcome than Kurzweil's prediction of artificial intelligence in a computer, or humans with enhanced brains that have received artificial intelligence via red blood cells.

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Clearly, there is a big problem with this scenario. That is, how to maintain a supply of human brains? If all the bodies are gone, where do the ova and sperm come from to create more humans with brains?

Banked sperm and ova are a possibility. They would be fertilized as needed and developed into humans by baby factories. Without a supply of human brains the robots would take over completely. In that scenario, Kurzweil's prediction will only be delayed as long as there are human brains available. Once the human brains have all died off, Kurzweil's prediction will come true.

Oh darn, you think, he's right again. Ah, but wait, tissue can be regrown. Perhaps a new human body and brain can be regrown completely and maintained, if not young, at least virile Monaghan and Maden, ; Racine et al.

In that case, human reproduction can take place in a biological fashion, without baby factories, thus maintaining the supply of human brains. These hybrids could be also used as national police. This bears on the very serious issue of control of the native population, a control issue that is becoming ever more prevalent these years. The present ability to know what humans think and do through access to their communications has provided governments with knowledge that could lead to total domination of the native population.

I raise this issue because scientific knowledge and technological achievements do not occur in a vacuum.