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Investigatory Project - Chemistry Class XII. Uploaded by vjkumar Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate . CBSE Class XII Chemistry Investigation Project Work - Free download as Word Doc .doc) or read online for free. Amount of Casein in Milk - Chemistry project cbse class Uploaded by. ArpitRanka (1) Uploaded by. CHEMISTRY INVESTIGATORY PROJECT of Class XII - Download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. This is a copy of my chemistry project report.

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Main article: Radiation-induced cancer Radiation exposure such as ultraviolet radiation and radioactive material is a risk factor for cancer.

Children are twice as likely to develop radiation-induced leukemia as adults; radiation exposure before birth has ten times the effect. Ionizing radiation may be used to treat other cancers, but this may, in some cases, induce a second form of cancer. Hereditary cancers are primarily caused by an inherited genetic defect. Less than 0.

Statistically for cancers causing most mortality, the relative risk of developing colorectal cancer when a first-degree relative parent, sibling or child has been diagnosed with it is about 2.

Since height is genetically determined to a large extent, taller people have a heritable increase of cancer risk. It is possible that repeated burns on the same part of the body, such as those produced by kanger and kairo heaters charcoal hand warmers , may produce skin cancer, especially if carcinogenic chemicals are also present.

Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to directly cause mutation.

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These higher hormone levels may explain their higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast-cancer gene. People with untreated celiac disease have a higher risk, but this risk decreases with time after diagnosis and strict treatment, probably due to the adoption of a gluten-free diet , which seems to have a protective role against development of malignancy in people with celiac disease.

However, the delay in diagnosis and initiation of a gluten-free diet seems to increase the risk of malignancies. Also, immunomodulators and biologic agents used to treat these diseases may promote developing extra-intestinal malignancies.

Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat. Genetics Main article: Oncogenomics Cancer is fundamentally a disease of tissue growth regulation. In order for a normal cell to transform into a cancer cell, the genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation must be altered.

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Oncogenes are genes that promote cell growth and reproduction. Tumor suppressor genes are genes that inhibit cell division and survival.


Malignant transformation can occur through the formation of novel oncogenes, the inappropriate over-expression of normal oncogenes, or by the under-expression or disabling of tumor suppressor genes.

Typically, changes in multiple genes are required to transform a normal cell into a cancer cell. The gain or loss of an entire chromosome can occur through errors in mitosis. More common are mutations , which are changes in the nucleotide sequence of genomic DNA. Large-scale mutations involve the deletion or gain of a portion of a chromosome. Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies often 20 or more of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one or more oncogenes and adjacent genetic material.


Translocation occurs when two separate chromosomal regions become abnormally fused, often at a characteristic location. A well-known example of this is the Philadelphia chromosome , or translocation of chromosomes 9 and 22, which occurs in chronic myelogenous leukemia and results in production of the BCR - abl fusion protein , an oncogenic tyrosine kinase. Small-scale mutations include point mutations, deletions, and insertions, which may occur in the promoter region of a gene and affect its expression , or may occur in the gene's coding sequence and alter the function or stability of its protein product.

Disruption of a single gene may also result from integration of genomic material from a DNA virus or retrovirus , leading to the expression of viral oncogenes in the affected cell and its descendants.

So for every NaOH molecule that we add to the solution,we can expect to produce a hydroxyl ion. Performing titration: To dispense an accurately measured volume of the titrating solution, we will use a burette. A burette is a long tube with a valve at the bottom and graduated markings on the outside to measure the volume contained in the burette.

The burette is mounted on a ring stand, directly above the titrant solution. Solutions in the burette tend to creep up the sides of the glass at the surface of the liquid. This is due to the surface tension of water. The surface of the liquid thus forms a curve, called a meniscus.

To measure the volume of the liquid in the burette, always read from the bottom of the meniscus. Too much of oxalate in our urine results in a medical condition called, commonly referred to as kidney stones. Diet is looked upon as preventive measure in addition to medication to treat Kidney stones.

Oxalate ions are extracted from the fruit by boiling pulp with dilute H2SO4.

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The oxalate ions are estimated volumetrically, by titrating the solution with KMnO4 solution. A reagent, called the titrant, of a known concentration a standard solution and volume is used to react with a solution of the analyte or titrant, whose concentration is not known.

Using a calibrated burette or chemistry pipetting syringe to add the titrant, it is possible to determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached.

The endpoint is the point at which the titration is complete, as determined by an indicator. This is ideally the same volume as the equivalence point. The volume of added titrant at which the number of moles of titrant is equal to the number of moles of analyte, or some multiple thereof.

In the classic strong acid-strong base titration, the endpoint of a titration is the point at which the pH of the reactant is just about equal to7, and often when the solution takes on a persisting solid colour as in the pink of phenolphthalein indicator.

Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed it to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar. Transferred the crushed pulp to a beaker and added about 50 ml dilute H2so4 to it. Boiled the content for about 10 minutes.

Cooled and filtered the content sin a ml measuring flask. Made up the volume ml by adding ample amount of distilled water. Took 20 ml of the solution from the flask and added 20 ml of dilute sulphuric acid to it. Heated the mixture to about 60oC and titrated it against KMnO4 solution taken in a burette till the end point had an appearance of pink colour.

Chemistry Investigatory Project Class 12

Repeated the above experiment with 50 g of 1day, 2 day and 3 day old guava fruits. There should be no parallax while taking measurements. Spillage of chemicals should be checked. Avoid the use of burette having a rubber tap as KMnO4 attacks rubber.