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Dean, Power and speed; the story of the internal combustion engine on land, at sea and in the air [[[by]]] Frederick ed. A Novel [[[by]]] Katy Simpson Smith see work. Jeslieness combined Evidence For Survival [[[by]]] Ian Stevenson, The evidence for survival from claimed memories of former incarnations [[[by]]] Ian Stevenson see work. Complete Edition [[[by]]] Robert Graves see work. Jeslieness combined La percezione extrasensoriale [[[by]]] J. Rhine, Extra-sensory perception after sixty years; a critical appraisal of the research in extra-sensory perception [[[by]]] J. Gaither Pratt see work.
Ixion understand myths because they are a huge and in- was also the favourite theme for authors of the XIX valuable reservoir of knowledge, and their under- Century.
See for example Harvey Hubbard who standing can shed light in a privileged way on the published in Ixion And Other Poems, or the bur- culture of ancient populations.
The present paper attempts to settle the Wheel Among the other works that made the issue. Ixion popular there are those of the English prime 2. Having promised many collection Jocoseria Ixion never gave to his father-in-law the is a collection of poems by Ralph Gustafson3. Ixion concealed his resentment and invited Deioneus to a feast at Laris- sa. When he arrived, Ixion pushed him into a pit full of burning coals and wood.
As no one purified Ixion of this treacherous murder, and all the gods were indignant at him, Zeus took pity upon him, purified him, and invited him to his table. But Ixion was un- grateful to his benefactor, and attempted to win the love of Hera. Zeus forged a cloud in the form of He- ra and sent it to Ixion in order to test his intentions. By the cloud, named Nephele, Ixion became the fa- ther of a Centaur, who again having intercourse with Magnesian mares, became the father of the centaurs.
Ixion, as a punishment, was chained by Hermes with his hands and feet to a wheel, which is described as winged or Figure 1. Tantalus, Ixion and Sisyphus on a sarcophagus fiery, and said to have rolled perpetually in the air or Museo Pio Clementino in the lower world.
He is further said to have been scourged, and compelled to exclaim, "Benefactors 4. Leaving aside the success of the myth among lit- vi. First we summarize the in- terpretations proposed by various authors. As it will The myth of Ixion was rather popular in the past. Chaucer, who read Boc- trying to seduce Hera.
Fowler agrees with Nilsson re- type. Actually, convincing himself that the motif of garding the magic to get the rain, but also points out Ixion occurred in the dream of an uneducated pa- that "The details are very odd, the narrative motiva- tient, he also after other experiences finally con- tion creaks at every juncture; the myth smacks of ceived the idea itself of archetype.
Note that there exist at least 6 different proposed etymologies for Ixion 6. Gayley, , p.
Those related to the Sun and to on a torment wheel in eternal movement, the human the weather are the only ones with more than one existential condition, as an allegory for the "wheel of supporting author.
He also mentions a relation between Graves, Hewitt centaurs and rainmaking magic. It is a common atmospheric meteorological interpretation and in Wald- Und Feld- phenomenon also visible around the Moon, that oc- Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol.
This tradition it is supposed to be in the infernal world. The extent of the solar halo perfectly matches the path of Mercury around the Sun According to Hyginus the author of the astro- nomical treatise De Astronomia Hermes is the god commissioned by Zeus to tie Ixion to the wheel. Could Zeus not do it by himself?
Why did he choose Hermes? And what is the need to specify who exe- cuted the sentence, after all? Inserting an unnecessary detail may be very significant, and telltale of the aetiological Figure 2. Solar halo from the South Pole, December 21, nature of the myths. Hermes, the winged messenger of the gods, covers the exact extent of the halo during its apparent orbit 5.
This phenomenon can be quite bright and persis- tent, remaining visible for hours. It can be coloured like a rainbow with the blue side on the outer rim , or totally white.
In both cases this luminous ring can be properly described in mythological terms as a wheel of fire. As a matter of fact the phenomenon is so peculiar, easy to see and frequent several can be seen during a year by a modern casual observer that it would be strange not to find any occurrence of it among the ancient myths. We do have Greek myths giving sense7 to the rainbow or to the lightning, why not to the halo? Figure 3.
Hermes tying Ixion. The actual apparent path of planet Mercury around the Sun superimposed, to scale, 5. This odd detail involving the ciently long period we did it between and presence of a cloud is a heavy indication in favour of shows that the maximum mean distance of the identification of his wheel with the halo, since Mercury from the Sun is of Ixion with Nephele takes place in the skies, since it Describing the very fast movement of Mercury as happens in the dwelling place of Zeus, and that the the execution of the order of tying Ixion to its wheel punishment also takes place in the sky only in later is very fitting: you can see, in the quick appearances Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, Vol.
The width of his etymology of the name Ixion. One of the most shared motion is just the one required to cover the extent of by scholars is the one proposed in by Adalbert the wheel of Ixion identified with the halo.
Kuhn: according to him Ixion comes from an inter- 5. This is interesting but deceitful since every- of two kinds, referring to solar symbolism or to mag- thing in the sky is round rainbows included or ical rain-making. Under this aspect our interpreta- turns around an axis.
They are specifically to the solar one. This is because they moved in the This notion is well known by those who still ob- sky among the fixed stars and also because they serve and pay attention to the sky nowadays, it is were majesties: they did not just walk but used char- widespread and was of course not unknown in an- iots.
When he learned Agamemnon had been killed and his body disrespected in burial, Orestes felt he had to avenge the death. At the same time, the Furies would not look kindly on matricide, so Orestes must defend himself against the Furies with a special bow of horn, which Apollo gave to Orestes.
Clytemnestra did not recognize her son. After Orestes had killed Aegisthus, whom he had tricked into letting down his guard, Clytemnestra saw he was her son. Some versions say he beheaded her at her own home, some say he gave her over to a court of law and they convicted her to death. Why do I mistrust this version?
Another version says that Electra entices Clytemnestra to visit her home with news that she bore a child to her peasant husband. Clytemnestra, eager to see a grandson, was killed by Orestes who was hiding in Electra's house.
This one actually breaks my heart. Clytemnestra forbade this, but allowed Aegisthus to force Electra to marry a Mycenaean peasant who was then afraid to consummate the marriage. It is said he feared Orestes' wrath.
In some viewpoints since this myth came into being, Chrysothemis was the pious and noble daughter according to the matrilineal law still golden in some parts of Greece at this time. Who knew?
Ignorant as I am, I must have picked up in various places the notion that Clytemnestra was perfectly within her rights to kill the philandering, murdering husband who left her. Call it matrilineal if you must, but at some point you must call a spade a spade. This is what the notes by Graves have to say: 1. This is a crucial myth with numerous variants. Olympianism had been formed as a religion of compromise between the pre-Hellenic matriarchal principle and the Hellenic patriarchal principle; the divine family consisting, at first of six gods and six goddesses.
Matrilinear inheritance was one of the axioms taken over from the pre-Hellenic religion. Since every king must necessarily be a foreigner, who ruled by virtue of his marriage to an heiress, royal princes learned to regard their mother as the main support of the kingdom, and matricide as an unthinkable crime.
They were brought up on myths of the earlier religion, according to which the sacred king had always been betrayed by his goddess-wife, killed by his tanist, and avenged by his son; they knew the son never punished his adulterous mother, who had acted with the full authority of the goddess whom she served.
Is this relevant to the world we live in today? It could very well be relevant.
Matrilineal law has always made sense to me, not just because I am a woman. Crucial myth, indeed. I may have, in ignorance, chosen the perfect avatar in Clytemnestra, situated as she in between a society who reveres and respects matrilineal rule and and the struggle with a patrilineal line. Clytemnestra was not especially kind to the children she bore with Agamemnon, and this is regrettable.
She intervened to prevent overt harm to her children several times; we must take this at least at face value.