FLUID. MECHANICS. SIXTH EDITION. ROBERT W. FOX. Purdue Unive;ity. ALAN T. McDONALD. Purdue University. PHILIP J. PRITCHARD. Manhattan College. [Solutions Manual] Introduction to Fluid Mechanics (Fox, 5th ed). Thaís Carniato. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download. Fox and McDonald Introduction to fluid mechanics 9th ronaldweinland.info For educational purposes only please!.
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Significant Dimensionless Groups in Fluid Mechanics / . The Fox- McDonald-Pritchard solution methodology used in this text is illustrated in . the text. Additional Text Topics: PDF files for these topics/sections are available only on the. Osama Mohammed Elmardi Suleiman Khayal. Discover the world's research. Laminated composite beams and plates are commonly used in automotive, naval, aircraft, light weight structure, aerospace exploration and civil and mechanical engineering applications. Originally I wrote Bhagavad-gétä As It Is in the form in which it is presented now. When this book Bhagavad-Git Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineers.
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Fluid Mechanics integrates case studies at the beginning of each chapter, motivating students by demonstrating how the concepts of fluid mechanics are applied to solve real-world problems.
Videos demonstrating various fluid phenomena are integrated throughout the text, building students visualization skills. The coverage of compressible flow has been combined into a single chapter at the end of the book. Student View Student Companion Site. Manometers 51 Gases 56 3. Exact Solution on the Web 9. Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder Streamlining 9. Applications to Fluid Systems Blowers and Fans Minimum Specific Energy A new case study begins each chapter, providing students with motivation and demonstrating how fluid mechanics concepts are applied to solve real-world problems.
Restructured and Updated Chapters: Including chapters related to Internal Incompressible Viscous Flow, Flow Measurement, Compressible Flow Chapters 12 and 13 of the previous edition have been combined into one comprehensive chapter on Compressible Fluids.
Reviews "This highly-regarded text continues to provide readers with a balanced and comprehensive approach to mastering critical concepts, incorporating a proven problem-solving methodology that helps readers develop an orderly plan to finding the right solution and relating results to expected physical behavior.
What's New This text is well regarded as an undergraduate textbook for its comprehensive treatment of all the main areas of fluid mechanics, as well as its level of presentation.
Provides a proven, consistent problem-solving methodology: A consistent problem methodology is demonstrated in every example, demonstrating best practices for students. Includes over detailed example problems illustrate important fluid mechanics concepts and incorporate problem-solving techniques that allow students to see the advantages of using a systematic procedure.
More than 1, end-of-chapter problems with varying degrees of difficulty give instructors many options when creating assignments. The problem-solving approach is integrated with Excel so instructors can focus more class time on fundamental concepts.
We encourage both students and instructors to use these videos to gain insight into the actual behavior of fluids. The subject of compressible fluid flow was covered in two chapters in previous editions. These two chapters have now been combined into one and the more advanced material Fanno flow, Rayleigh flow, and oblique shock and expansion waves has been removed from the text.
These sections and the corresponding problems are available on the companion web- site for instructors and students. They provide an excellent introduction for those interested in a more in-depth study of compressible flow. The coverage of compressible flow in the current edition parallels the coverage of open-channel flow, emphasizing the similarity between the two topics.
Resources for Instructors The following resources are available to instructors who adopt this text. Visit the companion website www. The solutions manual for this edition contains a complete, detailed solution for all homework problems. The expected solution difficulty is indicated, and each solution is prepared in the same systematic way as the example solutions in the printed text. Each solution begins from governing equations, clearly states assump- tions, reduces governing equations to computing equations, obtains an algebraic result, and finally substitutes numerical values to obtain a quantitative answer.
Solutions may be reproduced for classroom or library use, eliminating the labor of problem solving for the instructor. A list of all problems that are renumbered from the eighth edition of this title, to the ninth edition.
Lecture slides outline the con- cepts in the book and include appropriate illustrations and equations. Illustrations are taken from the text in a for- mat appropriate to include in lecture presentations. Syllabi appropriate for use in teaching a one-semester course in fluid mechanics are provided. First-time instructors will find these a helpful guide to creat- ing an appropriate emphasis on the different topics.
These additional topics sup- plement the material in the text. The topics covered are fluids in rigid body motion, accelerating control volumes, the unsteady Bernoulli equation, the classical laminar boundary layer solution, and compressible flow Fanno flow, Rayleigh flow, and oblique shock and expansion waves. These online-only sections also include appropriate end-of-chapter problems. Excerpts from these longer films are often helpful in explaining fluid phenomena.
A Brief Review of Microsoft Excel: Prepared by Philip Pritchard, this online-only resource coaches stu- dents in setting up and solving fluid mechanics problems using Excel spreadsheets. These Excel files and add-ins are for use with specific examples from the text. This online-only material will aid students in using Excel to solve the end-of-chapter problems. The same additional topics provided to instructors are also available to students.
The videos referenced by icons throughout the text and in Appendix B are accessed from the website. WileyPLUS WileyPLUS is an online learning and assessment environment, where students test their understanding of concepts, get feed- back on their answers, and access learning materials like the eText and multimedia resources.
Acknowledgments This ninth edition represents another step in the evolution of this classic text to meet the needs of students and instructors in fluid mechanics. It continues the tradition of providing a pedagogically sound introduction to the subject of fluids as created by the original authors, Robert Fox and Alan McDonald.
Their focus on the fundamentals provides a solid grounding for those students who take only one course in fluids, and additionally gives those students who con- tinue their studies in the subject a strong base for advanced topics. Even though the original authors have not been involved with the later editions, we have tried to preserve their enthusi- asm for the subject and their personal insights into fluid behav- ior. Over the years, many students and faculty have provided additional end-of-chapter problems and new material that have shaped subsequent editions of this book.
The current edition thus contains the input of many instructors and researchers in the fluids field that supplements and supports the approach of the original authors. It is not possible to acknowledge all of the contributors individually, but their collective efforts have been crucial to the success of this text. In particular, Philip J. Pritchard, the author of the previous edition, introduced many significant revisions in the text and the online material that are included in this ninth edition.
We hope that colleagues and others who use this book continue to provide input, for their contributions are essential to maintaining the quality and rel- evance of this work. John W. Mitchell July viiPreface Manometers 52 Gases 57 3. Exact Solution www. Flow over a Sphere and Cylinder Streamlining 9. The Euler Turbomachine Equation x Contents Applications to Fluid Systems Blowers and Fans Minimum Specific Energy We have tried to present novel developments that show the ongoing importance of the field of fluid mechanics.
Wind Power According to the July 16, , edition of the New York Times, the global wind energy potential is much higher than previously esti- mated by both wind industry groups and government agencies. In the lower 48 states, the potential from wind power is 16 times more than total electricity demand in the United States, the researchers suggested, again much higher than a Department of Energy study that projected wind could supply a fifth of all electricity in the country by One reason for the new estimate is due to the increasingly common use of very large turbines that rise to almost m, where wind speeds are greater.
Previous wind studies were based on the use of to m turbines. In addition, to reach even higher elevations and hence wind speed , two approaches have been proposed. One of these is a design of KiteGen shown in the figure , consisting of tethered airfoils kites manipulated by a control unit and connected to a ground-based, carousel-shaped generator; the kites are maneuvered so that they drive the carousel, generating power, possibly as much as MW.
This approach would be best for the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. To start toward this goal, in this chapter we cover some very basic topics: Finally, we discuss some common engineering student pitfalls in areas such as unit systems and experimental analysis. Note to Students This is a student-oriented book: We believe it is quite comprehensive for an introductory text, and a student can successfully self-teach from it. However, most students will use the text in conjunction with one or two undergraduate courses.
In either case, we recommend a thorough reading of the relevant chapters. In fact, a good approach is to read a chapter quickly once, then reread more carefully a second and even a third time, so that concepts develop a context and meaning. Other sources of information on fluid mechanics are readily available. There are some prerequisites for reading this text.
We assume you have already studied introductory thermodynamics, as well as statics, dynamics, and calculus; however, as needed, we will review some of this material. It is our strong belief that one learns best by doing.
This is true whether the subject under study is fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, or soccer. The fundamentals in any of these are few, and mastery of them comes through practice. Thus it is extremely important that you solve problems. The numerous problems included at the end of each chapter provide the opportunity to practice applying fundamentals to the solution of problems.
Even though we provide for your convenience a summary of useful equa- tions at the end of each chapter except this one , you should avoid the temptation to adopt a so-called plug-and-chug approach to solving problems.
Most of the problems are such that this approach simply will not work. In solving problems we strongly recommend that you proceed using the following log- ical steps: Be sure to label the boundaries of the system or control volume and label appropriate coordinate directions.
In the design proposed by Sky Windpower, four rotors are mounted on an airframe; the rotors both provide lift for the device and power electricity generation. The aircraft would lift themselves into place with supplied electricity to reach the desired altitude but would then generate up to 40 MW of power. Multiple arrays could be used for large-scale electricity generation. In your initial work this problem format may seem unnecessary and even long-winded.
However, it is our experience that this approach to problem solving is ultimately the most efficient; it will also prepare you to be a successful professional, for which a major prerequisite is to be able to communicate infor- mation and the results of an analysis clearly and precisely. This format is used in all examples presented in this text; answers to examples are rounded to three significant figures.
Finally, we strongly urge you to take advantage of the many Excel tools available for this book on the text website for use in solving problems. Many problems can be solved much more quickly using these tools; occasional problems can only be solved with the tools or with an equivalent computer application. Scope of Fluid Mechanics As the name implies, fluid mechanics is the study of fluids at rest or in motion.
It has traditionally been applied in such areas as the design of canal, levee, and dam systems; the design of pumps, compressors, and piping and ducting used in the water and air conditioning systems of homes and businesses, as well as the piping systems needed in chemical plants; the aerodynamics of automobiles and sub- and supersonic air- planes; and the development of many different flow measurement devices such as gas pump meters.
Some examples include environmental and energy issues e. These are just a small sampling of the newer areas of fluid mechanics. They illustrate how the dis- cipline is still highly relevant, and increasingly diverse, even though it may be thousands of years old. Definition of a Fluid We already have a common-sense idea of when we are working with a fluid, as opposed to a solid: Fluids tend to flow when we interact with them e.
Engineers need a more formal and precise definition of a fluid: A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously under the appli- cation of a shear tangential stress no matter how small the shear stress may be.
Because the fluid motion continues under the application of a shear stress, we can also define a fluid as any substance that cannot sustain a shear stress when at rest. Hence liquids and gases or vapors are the forms, or phases, that fluids can take. We wish to dis- tinguish these phases from the solid phase of matter. We can see the difference between solid and fluid behavior in Fig.
If we place a specimen of either substance between two plates Fig. Note that a fluid in contact with a solid surface does not slip—it has the same velocity as that surface because of the no-slip condition, an exper- imental fact. We refer to solids as being elastic and fluids as being viscous. The idea that substances can be categorized as being either a solid or a liquid holds for most substances, but a number of substances exhibit both springiness and friction; they are viscoelastic.
Many biological tissues are viscoelastic. For example, the synovial fluid in human knee joints lubricates those joints but also absorbs some of the shock occurring during walking or running. Note that the system of springs and shock absorbers comprising the car suspension is also viscoelastic, although the individual components are not.
We will have more to say on this topic in Chapter 2. The basic laws, which are applicable to any fluid, are: On the other hand, in many problems it is necessary to bring into the analysis additional relations that describe the behavior of physical proper- ties of fluids under given conditions. For example, you probably recall studying properties of gases in basic physics or thermodynamics. In Eq. Example 1. It is obvious that the basic laws with which we shall deal are the same as those used in mechanics and thermodynamics.
Our task will be to formulate these laws in suitable forms to solve fluid flow problems and to apply them to a wide variety of situations.
We must emphasize that there are, as we shall see, many apparently simple problems in fluid mechanics that cannot be solved analytically. In basic mechanics, we made extensive use of the free-body diagram. We will use a system or a control volume, depending on the problem being studied. These concepts are identical to the ones you used in thermo- dynamics except you may have called them closed system and open system, respectively. We can use either one to get mathematical expressions for each of the basic laws.
In thermodynamics they were mostly used to obtain expressions for conservation of mass and the first and second laws of thermody- namics; in our study of fluid mechanics, we will be most interested in conservation of mass and Example 1.
Heat is added to the gas until it reaches a temperature of C. Determine the amount of heat added during the process.
Governing equation: In thermodynamics our focus was energy; in fluid mechanics it will mainly be forces and motion. We must always be aware of whether we are using a system or a control volume approach because each leads to different mathematical expressions of these laws. At this point we review the definitions of systems and control volumes.
System and Control Volume A system is defined as a fixed, identifiable quantity of mass; the system boundaries separate the system from the surroundings. The boundaries of the system may be fixed or movable; however, no mass crosses the system boundaries.
In the familiar piston-cylinder assembly from thermodynamics, Fig. If the gas is heated, the piston will lift the weight; the boundary of the system thus moves. Heat and work may cross the boundaries of the system, but the quantity of matter within the system boundaries remains fixed. No mass crosses the system boundaries.
In mechanics courses you used the free-body diagram system approach extensively. This was log- ical because you were dealing with an easily identifiable rigid body. However, in fluid mechanics we normally are concerned with the flow of fluids through devices such as compressors, turbines, pipelines, nozzles, and so on.
In these cases it is difficult to focus attention on a fixed identifiable quantity of mass. It is much more convenient, for analysis, to focus attention on a volume in space through which the fluid flows.
Consequently, we use the control volume approach. A control volume is an arbitrary volume in space through which fluid flows. The geometric boundary of the control volume is called the control surface. The control surface may be real or imaginary; it may be at rest or in motion. Figure 1. It is always important to take care in selecting a control volume, as the choice has a big effect on the mathe- matical form of the basic laws.
We will illustrate the use of a control volume with an example. Control volume Control surface 1 2 3 Fig. Differential versus Integral Approach The basic laws that we apply in our study of fluid mechanics can be formulated in terms of infinitesimal or finite systems and control volumes.
As you might suspect, the equations will look different in the two cases.
Both approaches are important in the study of fluid mechanics and both will be developed in the course of our work. In the first case the resulting equations are differential equations. Solution of the differential equa- tions of motion provides a means of determining the detailed behavior of the flow. An example might be the pressure distribution on a wing surface.
Frequently the information sought does not require a detailed knowledge of the flow. We often are interested in the gross behavior of a device; in such cases it is more appropriate to use integral formulations of the basic laws. An example might be the overall lift a wing produces. Integral formula- tions, using finite systems or control volumes, usually are easier to treat analytically.
The basic laws of mechanics and thermodynamics, formulated in terms of finite systems, are the basis for deriving the control volume equations in Chapter 4. Methods of Description Mechanics deals almost exclusively with systems; you have made extensive use of the basic equations applied to a fixed, identifiable quantity of mass.
On the other hand, attempting to analyze thermody- namic devices, you often found it necessary to use a control volume open system analysis. Clearly, the type of analysis depends on the problem. If the steady inlet speed averaged across the inlet area is 2: Exit speed, Ve. The physical law we use here is the conservation of mass, which you learned in thermodynamics when studying turbines, boilers, and so on. We will use the density form of the equation.
Hence the mass flow is: Even though we are already familiar with this equation from thermodynamics, we will derive it in Chapter 4. Where it is easy to keep track of identifiable elements of mass e.
This sometimes is referred to as the Lagrangian method of description. In Example 1. If the ball is dropped from rest m above the ground, determine the speed at which it hits the ground. What per- centage of the terminal speed is the result? The terminal speed is the steady speed a falling body eventually attains. Neglect buoyancy force.
We could use this Lagrangian approach to analyze a fluid flow by assuming the fluid to be com- posed of a very large number of particles whose motion must be described. However, keeping track of the motion of each fluid particle would become a horrendous bookkeeping problem.
Consequently, a particle description becomes unmanageable. Often we find it convenient to use a different type of description. Particularly with control volume analyses, it is convenient to use the field, or Eulerian, method of description, which focuses attention on the properties of a flow at a given point in space as a function of time.
In the Eulerian method of description, the properties of a flow field are described as functions of space coordinates and time. We shall see in Chapter 2 that this method of description is a logical outgrowth of the assumption that fluids may be treated as continuous media.
It goes without saying that the answer must include units. Consequently, it is appropriate to present a brief review of dimensions and units. We refer to physical quantities such as length, time, mass, and temperature as dimensions. In terms of a particular system of dimensions, all measurable quantities are subdivided into two groups—primary quantities and secondary quantities.
We refer to a small group of dimensions from which all others can be formed as primary quantities, for which we set up arbitrary scales of measure. Secondary quantities are those quantities whose dimensions are expressible in terms of the dimensions of the primary quantities. Units are the arbitrary names and magnitudes assigned to the primary dimensions adopted as standards for measurement. For example, the primary dimension of length may be measured in units of meters, feet, yards, or miles.
Systems of Dimensions Any valid equation that relates physical quantities must be dimensionally homogeneous; each term in the equation must have the same dimensions. Try the Excel workbook for this problem for variations on this problem.
Thus force and mass cannot both be selected as primary dimensions without introducing a constant of proportionality that has dimensions and units. Length and time are primary dimensions in all dimensional systems in common use. In some sys- tems, mass is taken as a primary dimension. In others, force is selected as a primary dimension; a third system chooses both force and mass as primary dimensions.
Thus we have three basic systems of dimen- sions, corresponding to the different ways of specifying the primary dimensions. In this case the constant of proportionality, gc not to be confused with g, the acceleration of gravity! The numerical value of the constant of proportionality depends on the units of measure chosen for each of the primary quantities. Systems of Units There is more than one way to select the unit of measure for each primary dimension.
We shall present only the more common engineering systems of units for each of the basic systems of dimensions. Table 1. Following the table is a brief description of each of them. More than 30 countries have declared it to be the only legally accepted system. Conshohocken, PA: ASTM, The dimensions arose because we selected both force and mass as primary dimensions; the units and the numerical value are a conse- quence of our choices for the standards of measurement.
Since a force of 1 lbf accelerates 1 lbm at SI units and prefixes, together with other defined units and useful conversion factors, are on the inside cover of the book. That is, each term in an equation, and obviously both sides of the equation, should be reducible to the same dimensions.
Almost all equations you are likely to encounter will be dimensionally consistent. This problem involves unit conversions and use of the equation relating weight and mass: The student may feel this example involves a lot of unnecessary calculation details e. The value of this constant depends on the surface condition of the channel.
Unfortunately, the equation is dimensionally inconsistent! A second type of problem is one in which the dimensions of an equation are consistent but use of units is not. However, it is used, in a sense, incorrectly, because the units traditionally used in it are not consistent.
For example, a good EER value is 10, which would appear to imply you receive, say, 10 kW of cooling for each 1 kW of electrical power. The EER, as used, is an everyday, inconsistent unit version of the coefficient of performance, COP, studied in thermodynamics.
The two examples above illustrate the dangers in using certain equations. Almost all the equations encountered in this text will be dimensionally consistent, but you should be aware of the occasional troublesome equation you will encounter in your engineering studies. As a final note on units, we stated earlier that we will use SI and BG units in this text. You will become very familiar with their use through using this text but should be aware that many of the units used, although they are scientifically and engineering-wise correct, are nevertheless not units you will use in everyday activities, and vice versa; we do not recommend asking your grocer to give you, say, 22 newtons, or 0.
SI units and prefixes, other defined units, and useful conversions are given on the inside of the book cover. Because it is difficult to precisely measure the filling of a container in a rapid production process, a fl-oz container may actually contain The manufacturer is never supposed to supply less than the specified amount; and it will reduce profits if it is unnecessarily generous. Similarly, the supplier of components for the interior of a car must satisfy minimum and maximum dimensions each component has what are called tolerances so that the final appearance of the interior is visually appealing.
Engineers performing experiments must measure not just data but also the uncertainties in their measurements.