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The module itself is completely self-contained in a global variable called basketModule. The basket array in the module is kept private and so other parts of our application are unable to directly read it.
It only exists with the module's closure and so the only methods able to access it are those with access to its scope i. Notice how the scoping function in the above basket module is wrapped around all of our functions, which we then call and immediately store the return value of.
This has a number of advantages including: The freedom to have private functions and private members which can only be consumed by our module. As they aren't exposed to the rest of the page only our exported API is , they're considered truly private. Given that functions are declared normally and are named, it can be easier to show call stacks in a debugger when we're attempting to discover what function s threw an exception. J Crowder has pointed out in the past, it also enables us to return different functions depending on the environment.
In the past, I've seen developers use this to perform UA testing in order to provide a code-path in their module specific to IE, but we can easily opt for feature detection these days to achieve a similar goal. Module Pattern Variations Import mixins This variation of the pattern demonstrates how globals e. This effectively allows us to import them and locally alias them as we wish.
This takes as its first argument a dot-separated string such as myObj. Using setObject allows us to set the value of children, creating any of the intermediate objects in the rest of the path passed if they don't already exist. For example, if we wanted to declare basket. Here, we see an example of how to define a namespace which can then be populated with a module containing both a private and public API.
Ben Cherry previously suggested an implementation where a function wrapper is used around module definitions in the event of there being a number of commonalities between modules.
Secondly, it supports private data - so, in the Module pattern, public parts of our code are able to touch the private parts, however the outside world is unable to touch the class's private parts no laughing!
Oh, and thanks to David Engfer for the joke. Disadvantages The disadvantages of the Module pattern are that as we access both public and private members differently, when we wish to change visibility, we actually have to make changes to each place the member was used. We also can't access private members in methods that are added to the object at a later point. That said, in many cases the Module pattern is still quite useful and when used correctly, certainly has the potential to improve the structure of our application.
Other disadvantages include the inability to create automated unit tests for private members and additional complexity when bugs require hot fixes. It's simply not possible to patch privates. Instead, one must override all public methods which interact with the buggy privates. Developers can't easily extend privates either, so it's worth remembering privates are not as flexible as they may initially appear. For further reading on the Module pattern, see Ben Cherry's excellent in-depth article on it.
The Revealing Module pattern came about as Heilmann was frustrated with the fact that he had to repeat the name of the main object when we wanted to call one public method from another or access public variables.
The result of his efforts was an updated pattern where we would simply define all of our functions and variables in the private scope and return an anonymous object with pointers to the private functionality we wished to reveal as public. It also makes it more clear at the end of the module which of our functions and variables may be accessed publicly which eases readability.
Disadvantages A disadvantage of this pattern is that if a private function refers to a public function, that public function can't be overridden if a patch is necessary. This is because the private function will continue to refer to the private implementation and the pattern doesn't apply to public members, only to functions. Public object members which refer to private variables are also subject to the no-patch rule notes above.
As a result of this, modules created with the Revealing Module pattern may be more fragile than those created with the original Module pattern, so care should be taken during usage.
The Singleton Pattern The Singleton pattern is thus known because it restricts instantiation of a class to a single object. Classically, the Singleton pattern can be implemented by creating a class with a method that creates a new instance of the class if one doesn't exist.
The first category uses a central entity, such as a base station similar to a cellular network in order to manage and control the network [ 18 , 19 ]. Whereas CRAHNs do not rely on any predefined infrastructure backbone, instead, the communication between CR users takes place in an ad hoc manner [ 20 ].
As CRAHN has a lower cost of implementation, lower system complexity and faster align positioning compared to infrastructure-based CRN, it is a more suitable option. To assess and review the existing work, a few surveys have been published. In [ 21 ], MAC protocols are divided based on control information exchange into four groups and later compared with each other using an extended framework proposed in [ 22 ].
Yao et al.
Wang et al. In , Claudia et al. Similarly, a more recent study by Domenico et al. As can be observed from existing surveys, most of the concentration is given to spectrum management functionalities, and less attention is given to the MAC protocols, especially for decentralized networks, concluding that there is no comprehensive survey paper on MAC protocols for CRAHN.
Thus, this paper anticipates to provide a comprehensive and intensive study by giving a detailed summary of the state-of-the-art in MAC layer protocols with a concentration on CRAHN. Before surveying MAC protocols, we present a brief description of CR fundamentals and explain each cognitive radio function. Later, the MAC protocols are divided into three groups based on their access scheme where the salient features of MAC protocols are presented, and the pros and cons of each protocol are discussed and highlighted.
Based on the analytical study of the existing MAC protocols, we have provided a discussion on the open research topics to be investigated more deeply in the future. Moreover, the comparison between protocols is introduced in a table to give the reader a broader view of all of the protocols. Thus, the contributions are the following: It provides a comprehensive survey of the CR spectrum functions of sensing, decision, sharing and mobility together with their connection to MAC protocols.
The pros and cons of each protocol are discussed, and the performance issues are highlighted.