Summary: The Cold War. CHAPTER 17, LESSON 1. Name. Date. Superpowers at War. After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union were the. Ashbrook Center, Ashland University. Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data. The Cold War: Core Documents;. Selected and Introduced by. Abstract. As a historical period, the Cold War may be seen as a rivalry between two nuclear CRS ronaldweinland.info
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The Cold War (). Introduction. The Grand Alliance formed by the U.S., USSR and the UK in World War II managed to defeat. European fascism and. research from the Communist side of the Cold War and the most recent Communism: The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, – ( ). From peaceful coexistence to the paroxysms of the Cold War (–) The Cold War was a lengthy struggle between the United States.
Radiation legacies[ edit ] US radiation warning symbol Because of the military and non-military exploitation of nuclear fission , the Cold War brought forth some significant involuntary exposures to high-level radiation. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused large-scale destruction through intense blast and fire, as well as acute and lingering radiation. Moreover, as a result of decades of nuclear-weapons production, experimentation, and testing, exposure to radiation above normal background levels occurred to scientists, technicians, military personnel, civilians, and animals. Several significant radiation-related accidents occurred at military and civilian nuclear reactors and facilities, causing direct fatalities, as well as involuntary occupational and public exposures. Because numerous diagnostic and epidemiological studies have since been conducted, the medical effects of radiation exposure are now better understood than they were during the Cold War. Comparatively large and involuntary doses and effects from radiation, chemical , and biological agents have been documented.
An appropriate continuing level of security is necessary through all life-cycle phases, from production to decommissioning.
In addition, the entire military nuclear infrastructure requires protection, and that requires a commensurate allocation of funding. Having once had widespread overseas nuclear bases and facilities, both the United States and the former Soviet Union have inherited particular responsibilities and costs. Moreover, all nuclear-weapons states had developed not only production and servicing facilities, but also sometimes extensive military staging and storage.
Moreover, the nuclear-weapon states remain in various reduced but palpable conditions of defensive alert. Risks of deliberate, accidental, or unauthorized nuclear devastation remain. Moreover, terrorists and hackers continue to interfere with nuclear stability and confidence. Until these materials can be demilitarized, they need to be security safeguarded.
Many production facilities are yet to be shut down. In the meantime, sensitive materials have to be safely and securely stored, pending their conversion to non-military use. In particular, the successor states of the former Soviet Union were generally not in a position to finance and maintain secure safeguards when the Cold War came to such an unprepared and relatively sudden end. National security and defense for nuclear-weapons states must be frequently reevaluated.
The international arms-control treaty and verification regime inherited from the Cold War is only slowly being updated to reflect the realities of a broken international security environment. Military legacies[ edit ] Internal national-security military postures still dominate behavior among sovereign nations.
The former superpowers have not formally consummated their stand-down from Cold War military equipoise. Strategic and tactical nuclear and conventional forces remain at levels comparatively high for a peacetime environment. Localized conflicts and tensions have replaced the former bilateral nuclear confrontation. As a lingering result, large inventories of nuclear weapons and facilities remain. Some are being recycled, dismantled, or recovered as valuable substances.
As well, some chemical and biological weapons that were developed during the Cold War are still in existence, although many are being demilitarized. Military policies and strategies are slowly being modified to reflect the increasing interval without major confrontation. Because of large extant inventories of weapons, fissile materials, and rapid-response delivery systems, a mutual danger coexists for accidental, misjudged, or miscalculated incidents or warfare.
Other Cold War weapons states, are slowly reducing their arsenals. In the meantime, they have not abandoned their dependency on nuclear deterrence, while a few more nations have attempted or succeeded in carrying out nuclear-explosive tests and thus creating their own nuclear deterrence. During the Cold War, an international fabric of arms-control constraint had evolved, much of it carried over as a beneficial heritage with institutional mechanisms for multilateral or international function and verification.
Institutional legacies[ edit ] Aside from tangible measures of national defense, such as standing military and security forces and hardware, are various institutional structures of government and functionality that have less to do directly with military or security factors, but more to do with underlying public attitudes and risks. These institutional structures and perceptions have had their own challenges and adjustments after the Cold War.
Strong impressions were made and continue to affect national psyche as a result of close brushes with all-out nuclear warfare. This propaganda ultimately accelerated the Cold War. Fourthly, Russian Declaration made another cause for the Cold War.
Soviet Russia highlighted Communism in mass-media and encouraged the labour revolution. On the other hand, America helped the Capitalists against the Communism. So it helped to the growth of Cold War.
After the bombardment of America on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Soviet Russia got afraid for her existence. So, it also followed the same path to combat America. This led to the growth of Cold War. Lastly, the Enforcement of Veto by Soviet Russia against the western countries made them to hate Russia. So western countries became annoyed in Soviet Russia which gave birth to the Cold War.
It passed through several phases. America always tried to control the Red Regime in Russia. In this phase, non withdrawal of army from Iran by Soviet Russia, Berlin blaockade etc. America also signed a treaty with Japan on 8 September, However, both North Korea and South Korea signed peace treaty in and ended the war.
In order to reduce the impact of Soviet Communism, America spent a huge amount of dollar in propaganda against Communism. On the other hand, Soviet Russia tried to be equal with America by testing atom bomb. Within a short span of time, America gave military assistance to 43 countries and formed military bases around Soviet Russia.
At that time, the Vietnamese War started on Russia also signed a defence pact with 12 Countries. In Soviet Russia included Sphutnick in her defence programme. In Stalin died and Khrushchev became the President of Russia. In an agreement was signed between America and Russia regarding the Suez Crisis. America agreed not to help her allies like England and France.
In fact, West Asia was saved from a great danger. Both the countries were annoyed for U-2 accident and for Berlin Crisis.
This incident created an atmosphere of conversation between American President Kenedy and Russian President Khrushchev. America assured Russia that she would not attack Cuba and Russia also withdrew missile station from Cuba. There was a worldwide concern demanding ban on nuclear weapons. This compelled both the parties to refrain from nuclear war. In , American Foreign Secretary Henry Kissinger paid a secret visit to China to explore the possibilities of reapproachment with China.
The American move to convert Diego Garcia into a military base was primarily designed to check the Soviet presence in the Indian Ocean.
During the Bangladesh crisis of and the Egypt-Israel War of the two super powers extended support to the opposite sides. Last Phase : In this phase certain changes were noticed in the Cold War.
That is why historians call this phase as New Cold War. But in the prospects of mitigating Cold War were marred by sudden development in Afghanistan.
Vietnam , Angola , Ethiopia and Afghanistan issues brought success to Russia which was unbearable for America. In America boycotted the Olympic held at Moscow. In , Russia withdrew from a talk on missile with America. In Russia boycotted the Olympic game held at Los-Angeles. At first, it gave rise to a fear psychosis which resulted in a mad race for the manufacture of more sophisticated armaments.
Secondly, Cold War rendered the UNO ineffective because both super powers tried to oppose the actions proposed by the opponent. Thirdly, due to the Cold War, a Third World was created. A large number of nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America decided to keep away from the military alliances of the two super powers.
They liked to remain neutral.
Fourthly, Cold War was designed against mankind. The unnecessary expenditure in the armament production created a barrier against the progress of the world and adversely affected a country and prevented improvement in the living standards of the people.
It divided the world into two groups which was not a healthy sign for mankind. Sixthly, The Cold War created an atmosphere of disbelief among the countries. They questioned among themselves how unsafe were they under Russia or America. The alliances and counter-alliances created a disturbing atmosphere. It was a curse for the world.