CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits – 3rd Edition. CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits. Chapter 2. Fabrication of MOSFETs. S.M. Kang and Y. Leblebici. Copyright. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 47 Chapter 14 DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURABILITY NOTE: All solutions numbered x (x = 1 . 'CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits' Sung Mo Kang, Leblebici - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online.
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Categories of Materials Materials can be categorized into three main groups regarding their electrical conduction properties: The success of a semiconductor material depends on how easy it is to process and how well it allows reliable high-volume fabrication.
This cylinder is carefully sawed into thin disks wafers. The wafers are later polished and marked for crystal orientation.
Lithography is used to selectively process the layers, where the 2-D mask geometry is copied on the surface. The mask pattern is developed on the photoresist, with UV light exposure.
Depending on the type of the photoresist negative or positive , the exposed or unexposed parts of the photoresist change their property and become resistant to certain types of solvents.
Subsequent processing steps remove the undeveloped photoresist from the wafer. The developed pattern usually protects the underlying layer from an etching process. The photoresist is removed after patterning on the lower layer is completed.
Once the desired shape is patterned with photoresist, the unprotected areas are etched away, using wet or dry etch techniques. Oxide layers are also used to isolate metal interconnections.
An annealing step is required to restore the crystal structure after thermal oxidation. The dopant ions penetrate the surface, with a penetration depth that is proportional to their kinetic energy.
In most cases, the material that is deposited on the whole surface will be patterned and selectively etched.
There are two main methods for thin film deposition: