Organizational Behavior 13th ronaldweinland.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File She earned her Ph.D. and M.B.A. in organizational behavior No one is allowed to judge or evaluate any ideas until they are all on the • Assign the . Robbins & Judge Organizational Behavior 13th Edition. Chapter 1: What Is Organizational Behavior? Student Study Slideshow. Bob Stretch. Southwestern. Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition. Stephen P. Robbins . Organizational Behavior & SAL CDROM Pkg, 12th Edition. Robbins & Judge. © Kit/ Package/.
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Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. — 15th ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN ronaldweinland.info Behavior, 13e (Robbins/Judge) Chapter 2 Diversity in Organizations 1) The two. Edition, ISBN: by Robbins, Stephen P.; Judge, Timothy A., . Journal of Organizational Behavior, Personnel Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, . OB in the News Other Disciplines Make Use of OB Concepts
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Yx6ndj Ccf2za. Full file at https: A surface-level diversity; deep-level diversity B surface-level diversity; lateral-level diversity C organizational-level diversity; individual-level diversity D lateral-level diversity; deep-level diversity E physical-level diversity; intellectual-level diversity Answer: A Explanation:
Making sense of and building skills to succeed in this collab- orative context are mainstream themes for the book. Organizations need effective communicators.
The discussion of communication has been refreshed to incorporate research on voice, silence, feed- back-giving and feedback-seeking. We also expand coverage of supportive commu- nication principles and how to use communication to build and maintain effective relationships. A key goal is helping students understand how they can overcome problems of avoidance in communication. Our approach to the leadership process material has been substantially updated to reflect emerging trends in leadership research in reaction to chang- ing leadership environments.
We recognize leadership as a process and not just a position or an individual behavior.
We bring in the latest research on identity, followership, relational leadership, and collective leadership. And, the overview of trait, behavioral, and contingency approaches to leadership is extended to include a discussion of complexity leadership and ethics.
We provide a more balanced view of both positive and negative aspects of power and politics. New findings from network theory, research on perceptions of politics and political skills, and the nature of political climates provide students with a broad-based and practical understanding of how power and politics issues matter to them.
Every chapter opens with a subtitle and photograph that help students identify with the content right from the beginning. This is followed by the Key Point conveyed in a short smart-phone sized message.
Major chapter headings are listed in Chapter At a Glance. Chapter content begins with each major heading linked with a Learning Roadmap which identifies major subheads for the section. The first step to making that possible is for students to read and study assigned materials outside of class. When they come to class prepared, the instructor has many more options for engagement. The organization and content of Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition, coupled with the power of the WileyPLUS online learning environment help greatly in this regard.
Success in flipping the classroom also requires a variety of discussion activities, projects, and quick-hitting experiences that turn class time into engaged learning time. The following chapter features are not only interesting to readers; they are also prompts and frames that can be used for flipped classroom activities and discussions, and for individual and team assignments.
Weighing Alternative Interests. Sample topics include—interactional justice, racial bias, social loafing, demographic faultlines, and workplace identities. The end-of-text OB Skills Workbook has become a hallmark feature of the textbook, and it has been updated and expanded for the new edition.
The four sections in the new updated workbook that offer many ways to extend the OB learning experience in creative and helpful ways. All items have chapter assignment recommendations. Welcome to Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition xi Student and Instructor Support Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition, is supported by a comprehensive learning package that assists the instructor in creating a motivating and enthusiastic environment.
Test Bank This comprehensive Test Bank is available on the instructor portion of the Web site and consists of over questions per chapter. The questions are designed to vary in degree of difficulty to challenge your OB students.
The Computerized Test Bank contains content from the Test Bank provided within a test-generating program that allows instructors to customize their exams. New findings from network theory, research on perceptions of politics and political skills, and the nature of political climates provide students with a broad-based and practical understanding of how power and politics issues matter to them.
Every chapter opens with a subtitle and photograph that help students identify with the content right from the beginning. This is followed by the Key Point conveyed in a short smart-phone sized message. Major chapter headings are listed in Chapter At a Glance.
Chapter content begins with each major heading linked with a Learning Roadmap which identifies major subheads for the section. The first step to making that possible is for students to read and study assigned materials outside of class. When they come to class prepared, the instructor has many more options for engagement.
The organization and content of Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition, coupled with the power of the WileyPLUS online learning environment help greatly in this regard. Success in flipping the classroom also requires a variety of discussion activities, projects, and quick-hitting experiences that turn class time into engaged learning time. The following chapter features are not only interesting to readers; they are also prompts and frames that can be used for flipped classroom activities and discussions, and for individual and team assignments.
Exam- ples include: Examples include: Weighing Alternative Interests. Sample topics include—interactional justice, racial bias, social loafing, demographic faultlines, and workplace identities. The end-of-text OB Skills Workbook has become a hallmark feature of the textbook, and it has been updated and expanded for the new edition. The four sections in the new updated workbook that offer many ways to extend the OB learning experience in creative and helpful ways.
All items have chapter assignment recommendations. Student and Instructor Support Organizational Behavior, 13th Edition, is supported by a comprehensive learning package that assists the instructor in creating a motivating and enthusiastic environment. Test Bank This comprehensive Test Bank is available on the instructor portion of the Web site and consists of over questions per chapter.
The questions are designed to vary in degree of difficulty to challenge your OB students. The Computerized Test Bank contains content from the Test Bank provided within a test-generating program that allows instructors to customize their exams. The Power- Point slides can be accessed on the instructor portion of the Web site and include lecture notes to accompany each slide. An Image Gallery, containing jpg files for all of the figures in the text, is also provided for instructor convenience.
Web Quizzes This set of online quizzes is written to match the Test Bank and varies in level of difficulty. It is designed to help your students evaluate their individual progress through a chapter.
Web quizzes are available on the student portion of the Web site. Here students will have the ability to test themselves with 15—25 multiple choice and true-false questions per chapter.
Organizational Behavior Video Series and Teaching Guide Short news clips tied to the major topics in organizational behavior are available. These clips provide an excel- lent starting point for lectures or for general class discussion. Darden Business Cases Through the Wiley Custom Select website, you can choose from thousands of cases from Darden Business Publishing to create a book with any combination of cases, Wiley textbook chapters and original material.
Visit http: Simple drag-and-drop tools make it easy to assign the course plan as-is or modify it to reflect your course syllabus. WileyPLUS helps students take more initiative. Customizable Course Plan: Through instant feedback and study objective reports. Pre-created Activity Types Include: This interactive approach focuses on: Download the Building Block today.
Welcome to Organizational Behavior. Service Pack 5 and higher. Highlighting both strengths and problem areas. Tested by instructors and students. Digital content in higher education is advancing rapidly—moving from static content to dynamic digital assets that provide for personalized.
ORION helps students learn by learning about them. Based on the results of their diagnostic and ongoing practice. Students can also practice. The system continuously adapts to each student so that he or she can build proficiency. ORION presents students with questions appropriate for their current level of understanding. David S. Ariel Fishman. Morehouse College. University of New Hampshire. Barbara Walker.
Mary McGarry. Oklahoma City University. Bernardo M. Robert Ledman. Assumption College. New Mexico State University. Susan Rawson Zacur. Barbara McCain. Chapman University. Susan Schor. Paul Lyons. Timothy T. University of California. State University of New York. California State Polytechnic University. Marcus Maier. Ohio University. Barbara K. Oklahoma City University.. Old Westbury. University of Baltimore. Pace University. Michael R. Boston University. University of Pennsylvania.
Michigan State University. Paula S. Lady Hanson. Alan Randolph. Northern Kentucky University. The Wharton School. Santa Cruz.
Boston College. Diversity Consultant. Paula J. Conrad N. Southwest Communications Resources.. Annie McKee. Carol Harvey. Alliant International University. Joseph Raelin. Empire State College. Franklin Ramsoomair. Marc Osborn. Mary Khalili. Wilfrid Laurier University. Bonnie McNeely. Kutak Rock LLP. Murray State Univer- sity.
Placido L. New Mexico Highlands University. Frostburg State University. Ellen Ernst Kossek. Keaton Richard Barrett Gary J.
We are pleased to express our appreciation to the following colleagues for their contributions: Acknowledgments Organizational Behavior. Jennifer Manias Content Editor. Warfield Robert F. Weiss Prudence Pollard Walter W.
Special gratitude goes to Tom Nery as the creative force behind the new design. We thank Amit Shah. Allie Morris for overseeing the media development. Acknowledgments xvii Herff L. Fran Waller Judy C. Robert Lenie Holbrook.
They took OB to heart and did their very best to build a high-performance team in support of this book. Murray Sharp W. Starkey Barry L. Shelley Smith. George Hoffman Publisher. As always. Edward B. Thank you everyone!! We also thank Erin Ault and Jackie Henry for their excellent production assistance. Parks Dayle Smith Andrea F. Impression Management. Everyone deserves to be respected at work and to be satisfied with their jobs and accomplishments.
Introducing 1 Organizational Behavior The Key Point People in all of their rich diversity are the basic building blocks of organizations. If you pause to consider the vast effects of our recent economic and social turmoil. Learning about OB can help you build solid job skills and expand your potential for career success in the dynamic.
This is a time in which the normal com- plexities of human behavior in organizations are ramped up by an environment of con- stant change and the growing influence of social technology.
Think OB and career success! Think OB and overall life satisfac- tion! The real importance of OB boils down to how it helps you develop the skills needed for a successful career in our ever-changing world. Preferred jobs are still hard to come by for new college graduates. It is an academic discipline devoted to understanding individ- in organizations.
Take the OB relevance test. This text helps you bridge the gap between OB as a body of knowledge and OB as a pathway to career and life success. Our book is about people. Organizational behavior OB is the study of human the study of human behavior behavior in organizations. How prepared are you to excel in jobs with fashion-forward titles like these? Talk to friends and follow the news headlines. Those with jobs often struggle to support a desired lifestyle while balancing conflicting demands of work and family responsibili- ties.
Like it or not. In this challenging era. Smart which knowledge and skills are shared to solve real and workforces are built through connections activated by relational skills and social complex problems. The following changes in what people expect and value in terms of human behavior in organizations are of special interest in the study of OB. There is no doubt that success with our life and career goals requires ongoing learning and continuous attention to new trends.
Highly publicized scandals involving unethical and illegal practices prompt concerns for ethical behavior in the workplace. They are everyday leaders who are exceptionally career test.
The They bring social technology together with face-to-face question is this: Are you ready to jump in and let OB interactions to harness the powers of knowledge. In other words. In this environment. And it is about how our complex ever-changing environment requires people and organizations to continuously adapt and improve in the quest for promising futures. More people now work as independent contractors and freelancers who shift among employers rather than hold full-time jobs.
This led to research dealing with individual attitudes. How do we learn how to integrate multigenerational workforces around common goals and high performance expectations? How do we gain solid insights into how these and other important issues of human behavior play out in day-to-day organizational practice?
The answer is found in one word: Balance of work and nonwork responsibilities is a top-priority value. Decision making and goal setting increasingly give attention to the environment. As new technologies—including social media— penetrate the workplace. The new generation is less tolerant of hierarchy. New pressures and demands mean organizations can no longer rely on just managers for leadership.
Leadership is valued from all members. Success is earned through knowledge. New economy jobs require special skill sets and a continuous development. Organizational behavior then emerged as a scholarly discipline devoted to scientific understanding of individuals and groups in organizations.
Issues of sustainability are top priorities. Traditional hierarchical structures and practices are being replaced by shared leadership. Although the early focus was on physical working conditions.
Scientific Foundations of Organizational Behavior More than a century ago. OB scholars often propose and test models—simplified views of reality that attempt to Models are simplified views identify major factors and forces underlying real-world phenomena.
Job satisfaction independent variable influences. Figure 1. The ultimate goal of OB is to improve the performance of people. These research methods are based on scientific thinking. For example. This means 1 the process of data collection is controlled and systematic.
As you look at the above model. What makes OB unique is its desire to integrate the diverse insights of these other disciplines and apply them to real-world organizational problems and opportunities. Think also about job satisfaction as a dependent variable in its own right. Field studies in real-life organizational settings Meta analyses Laboratory studies using statistics to pool Sources of research in simulated and results of different insight in OB controlled settings empirical studies Survey studies Case studies using questionnaires looking in depth at and interviews in single situations sample populations FIGURE 1.
Organizational Behavior as a Science 7 political science. These models link of reality that attempt to independent variables—presumed causes—with dependent variables—outcomes of explain real-world phenomena.
What indepen- dent variables do you believe might explain whether satisfaction will be high or low for someone doing a service job.
Quest for Evidence An essential responsibility of any science is to create and test models that offer evidence-based foundations for decision making and action.
In fact. Her book. As you might expect. OB recognizes that behavior and practices Contingency thinking seeks must be tailored to fit the exact nature of each situation—this is called contingency ways to meet the needs of thinking. Contingency Thinking Rather than assuming that there is one best or universal answer to questions such as those just posed. Her answer is that we can Focus on Application The science of organizational behavior focuses on applica- tions that can make a real difference in how organizations and people in them perform.
Stated a bit differently. Some examples of the many practical research questions addressed by the discipline of OB and reviewed in this book are: What causes unethical and socially irresponsible behavior by people in organiza- tions? Responses must be crafted to best fit the circumstances and people involved. As professor of management at the London Business To work on the bright School. Lynda Gratton worries that students fail to side we have to shift understand the nature.
The Future of Work default and accept a bleak future. Organizational Behavior as a Science 9 Research Insight Women Might Make Better Leaders o one doubts there are good and bad leaders of their leadership skills get tough tests and end up being N both genders.
Transactional and Laissez-Faire Leadership: A Meta-Analysis of Women and Men. There also is a continuous learning from rich and ever-expanding pool of learning experiences available in the work events and everyday experiences.
But just what are we talking about here? Learning is an enduring Think of learning as an enduring change of behavior that results from experience. Alice H. But research by Alice Eagley and her colleagues at Northwestern University suggests that better developed. Ask this ques- by the fact that followers are more accepting of a transfor.
When it comes to learning about OB. Mary C. Cross-Cultural Awareness In a time of complex globalization. They also suggest that because study could prove quite insightful. OB is now rich with empirically based insights into cross-cultural issues. Do women lead differently from men? Organize mational style when the leader is female. Women also score higher on rewarding positive performance. Is this and correcting mistakes. Only the learners. Every team project. Notice that Figure 1.
What is learned from all such experiences—now and in the future—will in many ways be the key to your personal and career success. Even our leisure pastimes from sports to social interactions to television. The workbook contains cases for analysis.
It provides a variety of active learning opportunities that can help you better understand the practical applications of OB concepts. It grows as theory building takes place to try to explain what has happened. Along with your instructor. We can even stimulate your reflection and theory building by presenting concepts and discussing their research and practical implications.
Theory is then tested in behavior. Sooner or later. During a lull. Simply stated. It illustrates that ethical lines can some- decisions that are not always in the best interests of the times be blurry. One hostage questions these practices in light of clear or agreed upon. In the end. John doctor order it? Should a able. To be sure.
He decides to take the heart surgeon hostage not necessary. The heart surgeon initially balks for ethical reasons. Personal Values. This is a good time to check yours by taking the assessment and asking yourself these questions: What did I learn about my values? Are they balanced? Do the results suggest anything about how I might approach situations with ethical components? Can the emphasis I place on certain values create pressures to act unethically? This movie is worth watching as a study in organiza- ance practices and hospital policies result in treatment tional behavior.
This definition describes everything from clubs. Complex adaptive systems Organizations are also complex adaptive systems. Regulators want compliance with laws. Customers want value pricing and high- quality products.
Organizations today are embed- ded in environments whose components are so highly interconnected that changes in one have consequences—sometimes unpredictable and even uncontrollable—for other parts. If everything works right. Consider possibilities such as these.
And in a world that is increasingly complicated—socially. They obtain resource human and material resource inputs from the environment and transform them into finished goods or services that are inputs into finished goods returned to the environment as product outputs. Present generations want the benefits of available natural resources.
Employees want secure jobs with good pay and benefits. One CEO says: Because the environments they interact and adapt with their interact with are constantly evolving and changing. Open systems transform Figure 1. Although an organization should ideally operate in ways that best serve all stakehold- ers. To understand behavior in any setting. Those with attributes such as age. Do you act differently when you are with your friends. There is also something called organizational climate—the shared perceptions Organizational climate among members regarding what the organization is like in terms of management policies represents shared perceptions and practices.
Think about it. Consultant R. Still other cultures are known for their emphasis on speed and agility in dealing with markets and environ- ments. The question in this respect is: How do our behaviors contribute to what is happening to us and around us. You have probably noticed that relations among managers and employees of members regarding what the organization is like in are relaxed and communication is free-flowing in some climates. The Context of Organizational Behavior 13 The Internal Environment of Organizations The internal environment of organizations also creates an important context for human behavior.
The sidebar suggests possible fit preferences for ability. Management Multiculturalism in scholar and consultant Gary Hamel says they are bringing new expectations to Organizations the workplace. But in others. In competitive cultures. One of the strongest contextual influences on human behavior is organizational Organizational culture is a culture—the shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational shared set of beliefs and members. In more authoritarian and hierarchical cultures.
Women still earn only about 75 cents per dollar earned by men. There are more women working than ever before. And in the workplaces of today. At the heart of the matter. Demographic trends driving workforce diversity in American society are well recog- nized. At Fortune companies women hold only 15 CEO jobs and 6. Technology Makes Crowdsourcing Grades Easy. By the year But programs. They earn 60 percent of college degrees and fill a bit more than half of managerial jobs.
In this sense. The Management Process Anyone serving as a manager or team leader faces a challenging and complicated job. Think of this as the quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by an individual. Ensuring that things go well by monitoring performance and taking to work hard to accomplish corrective action as necessary. But just as a valuable machine should not be allowed to break down for lack of proper maintenance.
The management process The nature of managerial work is often described and taught through the four functions involves fulfilling the four shown in Figure 1.
Henry Mintzberg described how managers enact the Controlling monitors management process in a busy. OB is quite clear that managers and team leaders should be held accountable for both Job satisfaction is a positive task performance and job satisfaction. The first is task both performance and satisfaction. Creating work structures and systems. Instilling enthusiasm by communicating with others. The Task performance is the second is job satisfaction.
Performance pretty much speaks for itself. Management and Organizational Behavior 15 Whatever the label used. These functions responsibilities of planning. It indicates how people feel about their work and the work quantity and quality of work produced. Defining goals. In what has become a classic study. This definition focuses attention on others achieve high levels of two key outcomes.
They are also accomplished while a manager acts out the set of ten managerial roles shown in Figure 1. A good example is skill in using the latest communication and information technologies. They show up as a spirit of ability to work well with other trust.
People with this skill are able to interact well with others. Robert Katz divides the action. They want to know what skills in the major you are going to bring with you to the job. In the high-tech workplaces of today. As defined by Daniel Goleman. Essential Managerial Skills We all need skills to do well in work and life. A person people. Formally stated. The informational roles involve managers exchanging information with other people.
Human Skills Central to all aspects of managerial work and team leadership are Human skills comprise the human skills. EI is the ability to understand and. Managers and team leaders need these skills to develop. Seeking real facts upon which to base a conclu- sion. Does this study suggest from home? Is the evidence from this study good enough to that everyone should be given the option to work from make real-world decisions about the use of telecommuting? Results showed that telecommuters were online for more minutes.
When productivity gains. And when the experiment was over and workers were given the chance to switch groups if they wished. Trouble Balancing Work and Home? Home Working May Be the Answer A group of Stanford University researchers wondered if allowing work to be done at home was really worth it to employers.
Their performance was monitored and an overall evaluation made at the end of the research period. Using odd or even birth dates. Conceptual skill is used to identify problems and opportunities. Technical skills are considered more important at entry levels.
How about the whole concept of management being a profession like medicine and law? Can professionalizing management really make a difference in terms of ethical accountability and everyday managerial behavior? Human skills. Its goal is to create a community of graduating MBA students from any univer. Does it surprise you that a Harvard Business Review article claims managers are losing the public trust?
To help change things for the better. Would you take it. Ethical Management Having managerial and leadership skills is one thing. He suggests that the relative importance of these skills varies across the different levels of management. It involves the ability to to analyze and solve complex see and understand how systems work and how their parts are interrelated.
And when it comes to ethics and morality. Senior executives require more conceptual skills as they face more complex problems and deal with strategic issues related to organizational mission and fitness.
Carroll draws a distinction between immoral managers. This capacity to think analytically and solve com- Conceptual skill is the ability plex and sometimes ambiguous problems is a conceptual skill. One of the themes of this book. Developed from Terry Thomas. An amoral manager fails to trast. If this is true. This includes always acting as ethical role models and being willing to take stands in the face of unethical behavior by those above.
Carroll believes that the majority of managers tend to act amorally. All organization members can and should be ethical leaders. Perhaps the best examples are disgraced executives such as Bernard Madoff. The amoral manager. Unintentional ethical lapses that we all must guard decision or behavior. Ethical behavior is a goal. Schermerhorn Jr. This manager fails to consider consider the ethics of a the ethics of a decision or behavior.
But the fact is. They help create an organizational culture in which people encourage one another to act ethically as a matter of routine. Framing in this setting means tailoring communication in ways to communication in ways encourage certain interpretations and discourage others. Effective Leaders Effective leaders contribute to the leadership process by using their influence to advance positive outcomes.
Without followers there can be no leaders. Effective leaders.. Effective following is an essential—perhaps the The leadership process most important part—of the leadership process.
Organiza- tions are full of leaders. Leadership occurs when leaders and followers work together to advance change that benefits the mission and vision of the organization. As shown in Figure 1. They do what they can to be Social exchange means trustworthy. Leadership is a process. Leaders are those who are willing to proactively envision new ways of doing things and take initiative in promoting needed changes in organizations.
Sometimes others jointly producing leadership follow because they see leadership potential in someone. Every time you act in ways that fit these descriptions.
This means that leadership is not only downward influence. Leaders know that competence and reputation. You can be a leader among your peers by becoming the person people turn to for advice. They understand that relationships are developed through social exchange. An effective leader recognizes to encourage certain that focusing on organizational interest e.
They are followed because others see the value of their ideas and. Therefore they work to develop these skills. And even if they were. Effective leaders also know how to build relationships. You can be a leader by convincing higher management to adopt new practices suggested from your level.
Organizations today require leadership at all levels. These are people who get lis- tened to by their peers.
This helps them build networks and rela- states that if someone does something for someone else tionships that serve as a key source of leadership influence.
Solar the CEO and pri. Organizations today are undergoing major transitions. Could more people. Effective Followers Effective followers are those who work with leaders to produce positive outcomes. Geoff focused on tech- nice to be recognized as a good business owner.
They support leaders by being willing to collaborate and defer when needed. Michelle spent ness and do well. It has been ranked by Inc. They take responsibility for their own attitudes and behaviors and view themselves as partners with leaders in the leadership pro- cess.
You are being an effective follower when you assume responsibility for telling leaders information they need to know. Christian Baird Photography power was the replacement.
Managers and team leaders. I serve growing from there. The goal nical issues while is not to have the award. They require successful leadership at all levels. As friends became interested. The best followers bring passing problems or solutions along with problems. They help the manager by avoiding engaging in upward delegation. The best followers do not have to be micromanaged. At the same time. Followers today cannot get away with shrugging off responsibility or passing along blame as they might have.
What are the challenges of management in organizations? How do we learn about organizational behavior? They are expected to question and challenge leaders when needed. But to do so effectively they must act with respect.
What is the context of organizational behavior? And when leaders and followers partner effec- tively together. Terms to Know Amoral manager p. Which of the following issues would be most central to the field of organizational behavior OB?
What are the challenges of leadership in organizations? Which statement about OB is most correct? The term workforce diversity typically refers to differences in race. In the management process. What is the best description of the context for organizational behavior today? Which word best describes an organizational culture that embraces multicultural- ism and in which workforce diversity is highly valued? Which of the following is not a good match of organizational stakeholder and the interests they often hold important?
If the organization culture represents the character of an organization in terms of shared values. In the open-systems view of organizations.
The management function of is concerned with creating enthusiasm for hard work among organizational members. When a manager moves upward in responsibility, Katz suggests skills decrease in importance and skills increase in importance. A person with high emotional intelligence would be strong in , the ability to think before acting and to control disruptive impulses.
Short Response What are the key characteristics of OB as a scientific discipline? When is a manager an effective leader? Applications Essay Along with other students from the business school, she is going to spend the day with fourth- and fifth-grade students and introduce them to the opportunities of going to college.
An understanding of organizational behavior begins with the individual. People vary in their personalities, traits, values, and individual characteristics. These indi- Chapter at vidual differences influence how we behave and work together in organizations. People are complex.
You approach a situation one way, and someone else may approach it quite differently. These differences among people can make it difficult to predict and understand individual behavior in relationships, teams, and organizations. They also contribute to what makes the study of organizational behavior so fascinating.
The term Individual differences are individual differences refers to the ways in which people are similar and dissimilar in the ways in which people are personal characteristics. Some personal characteristics. They represent Surface-level diversity surface-level diversity based on quite visible physical attributes such as ethnicity, race, involves individual differences sex, age, and abilities.
Other individual differences—such as personalities, values, and in visible attributes such as attitudes—are more psychologically innate and less immediately visible.
They represent race, sex, age, and physical abilities. But they still hold individual differences in attributes such as personality only 3 percent of top jobs in American firms. The self-concept is the view individ- as physical, social, spiritual, or uals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings.
Two factors that increase awareness of individual Self-awareness means being differences—our own and others—are self-awareness and awareness of others. Awareness of others means being aware of these same things in others. People who are low preferences, styles, biases, and in self-esteem are full of self-doubt and are often afraid to act because of it.
You could have high self-esteem and yet overall self-evaluation. How, for example, can we explain belief about the likelihood of prejudice in the form of negative, irrational, and superior opinions and attitudes toward per- successfully completing a specific task. Are we the way we are because of heredity—genetic negative, irrational, and superior opinions and endowment, or because of environment—the cultural places and situations in which we have attitudes toward persons who been raised and live?
It is most likely that these two forces act in combination, with heredity are different from ourselves. Twin Studies: Nature or Nurture? How much of who we are is determined by nature and how much by nurture?
Research ment. Before you read on, take a guess at the following: In thinking about leadership, how much of leadership capacity do you think is determined by nature and how much by nurture?
This question is being investigated in a research pro- gram by Rich Arvey and colleagues. In a recent study, he Genetic and his researchers used a sample of fraternal and Their sample came from the Minnesota Work Experience Twin Registry—a registry of twins born in the state between Surveys were sent to the female twins with measures assessing their history of holding leadership roles i.
The results supported the pattern shown in the male Do the Research How close was your guess? How would you test the to leadership role occupancy although, not surprisingly, question of nature versus nurture?
Arvey, Z. Zhang, B. Avolio, and R. The U. Census Bureau predicts that the country will become a true plurality by , with no one ethnic or racial group being in the majority. Hispanics are now the fastest growing community and by will constitute one-third of the pop- ulation.
America is also growing demographically older; by one in five people will be aged plus. More and more organizations are embracing policies and practices to value diversity in their workforces as a way to increase competitiveness, build talent, expand organizational capabilities, and enhance access to diverse customers.
Moreover, when you need to understand something you have never encoun- tered before, such as another culture or an emerging market, do you turn to people who are Discrimination actively the same as you or would you want access to co-workers familiar with those cultures? It occurs when minority members are unfairly treated and membership.
Diversity Issues in the Workplace Race and Ethnicity The value of heterogeneous perspectives within teams and organizations can be gained from multicultural workforces with a rich mix of racial and Title VII of the Civil Rights ethnic diversity. And Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of protects individuals against Act of protects employment discrimination on the basis of race and ethnicity, as well as national origin, individuals against sex, and religion. It applies to employers with 15 or more employees, including state and employment discrimination on the basis of race and color, local governments.
It also prohibits employment decisions based on stereotypes and assumptions about abilities, traits, or the performance of indi- viduals of certain racial groups.
Research shows that companies with a higher percentage of female board directors and corporate offi- cers, on average, financially outperform companies with the lowest percentages by signif- icant margins. Moreover, the presence of women leaders sends important signals that an organization has a broad and deep talent pool, and offers an inclusive workplace.
Despite these benefits to organizations and anti-discrimination protections afforded them under Title VII of the U. Civil Rights Act of , women have not penetrated the highest level of organizational leadership to the extent we would expect. Even worse, many are still abandoning corporate careers just as they are positioned to attain The leaking pipeline higher-level responsibilities.
The term leaking pipeline was coined by Professor Lynda describes how women drop Gratton and colleagues of the London Business School to describe this phenomenon. The nonprofit research organization Catalyst reports that women consistently iden- tify gender stereotypes as a significant barrier to advancement and cause for the leaking pipeline.
This creates what is called The leadership double bind a leadership double bind for women. If they conform to the stereotype they are seen as describes how women are weak, and if they go against the stereotype they are breaking norms of femininity. Taking Steps to Curb Bias in Performance Assessment Try as we might, bias has a way of creeping into evaluated together, performance assessments and other human resource however, gender management decisions.
Bazerman may disappeared. The key, they say, is to make sure summarize the evaluators compare candidates directly rather than one research by noting by one. They to evaluate the quality performed a variety of math and verbal tasks chosen of those shoes.