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a priori. 先验的. ｘｉāｎｙàｎｄｅ a priori. 先验地. ｘｉāｎｙàｎｄì. A-, ab- (prefix). 分开. ｆēｎｋāｉ a-, an-. 不. ｂù a-, an-. 无. ｗú. Aardvark. 土豚. ｔǔｔúｎ. Aardvark. 土猪. ｔǔｚｈū. Examinations Board. COMMON ENTRANCE EXAMINATION at 11+ and 13+. MANDARIN CHINESE. VOCABULARY AND CHINESE CHARACTERS. FOR USE. PDF | This paper aims to shed some light on the use of Speaking Contest as the learning of Mandarin among non-native Chinese learners. .. Penggunaan kamus bahasa Melayu ke bahasa Cina dalam penambahan kosa kata bahasa cina.
DOI After a sociolinguistic outline of the country, the different phases lan- guage planning is normally divided into are examined in detail, highlighting both the points that have proven to be successful and those that have not. In the second part of the article the problems that have been encountered during language planning and the reasons why Malay has not succeeded in becoming a full-blown national language which even the non-Malays can identify with are examined. Together with the problems, some possible solutions are put forward that may improve the given situation and make Malay a useful and prestigious language also for the non-Malays, who make up more than one third of the total population, and perhaps even internationally. Keywords: language planning, Malay, Malaysia, national schools, national-type schools 1 Introduction Malay Bahasa Melayu is the most widespread of the Austronesian languages, having official status in Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and, under the name of Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia , in Indonesia, besides being spoken in Southern Thailand and some areas in the Southern Philippines as well as in other small communities in Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka.
This is certainly because of lack of opportunities to use it particularly in areas with a low percentage of Malay residents , but mostly because of the perceived low usefulness and prestige of the language especially in the work and cultural fields and because of the identification of the language with Malay ethnicity and Islam see Asmah Haji Omar Nowadays there are two types of primary state schools in Malaysia: National schools and National-type schools.
In the first ones the language of Brought to you by University of Malaya Library Authenticated pcoluzzi yahoo. As for secondary education, in addition to National schools, National-type schools are available only for Chinese, which means that students who attended Tamil primary schools and even a number of those who attended Chinese schools have to continue their education in secondary National schools.
In National-type secondary schools, however, Chinese is only limited to one subject. This system replaced the former one where each ethnic group had their own vernacular schools teaching in their own language and following different syllabuses, and with English schools attended by all ethnic groups, but mostly by well-off urban Chinese and Indian children.
As far as higher education is concerned, the main language of instruction in public universities is Malay, even though in several faculties English is used as well. However, there are now various private universities whose language of instruction is mostly English. For students belonging to minority groups there is another opportunity in National schools. The problem with POL, however, is that there may not be enough students or available teachers and the amount of teaching hours is low 3 periods of 45 minutes each a week see Asmah Haji Omar ; in addition, the fact that these classes are extracurri- cular with no compulsory exams to be passed makes them to be perceived as of little use.
Even though this education system has proven to be effective for the maintenance of the largest minority languages, it has only been partially helpful in raising the prestige of Malay among non-Bumiputras, and it has not helped Malay students to improve their linguistic and cultural knowledge of their fellow citizens belonging to other ethnic groups. In the section on status planning the reasons behind this relative failure have been already pointed out.
These are first of all the high prestige of English, secondly the relatively low prestige and usefulness of Malay particularly among non-Bumiputras, who cannot help perceiving it as closely related to Malay ethnicity, culture and religion, and thirdly the feeling of frustration and injustice that the positive discrimination provisions for Malays have created.
Let us now look at these three reasons in detail. This is true all over the world, but even more in countries where this language plays a special role for having been official in the past. And when English is so deeply rooted, well known and useful as it is in Malaysia, it is objectively difficult to rival it, as many situations all around the world have shown us.
In spite of the official language policy of the State, in Malaysia it is possible to survive and even thrive with only a basic knowledge of Malay.
For instance, there are thousands of foreigners living in Malaysia who can easily get by without knowing any Malay at all. This would not be possible in countries like Italy or Japan. In fact, most Malaysians can speak English, even if many do not speak it fluently. Also, as observed before, a large number of news- papers and magazines, TV programmes including the news and most of the books available in the country are in English.
In addition to this, mastery of English is an indispensable prerequisite to getting any good job in the private sector. It seems to me that not much can be done to counteract this, other than offering a much larger number of high quality cultural products in Malay, as already noted, or offering more job opportunities to non-Malays in state-related jobs where Malay is the dominant language.
People feel drawn to languages that can offer economic and cultural opportunities, i. This is the reason why most non-Malays and even some Malays prefer to learn and identify with English rather than Malay see also Azirah Hashim But there is another important reason why many non-Bumiputras reject Malay: Malay is not perceived as a neutral language for everybody, a feature that any national language should possess.
As already noted, the majority of books that can be found in Malay are love stories, on Malay issues or Islam, and this religion is often present in Malay productions on television. Books, magazines and television programmes in Malay targeting all ethnic groups in Malaysia are few and far between, and in the same way as members of different ethnic groups, particularly young people, tend not to mingle on a daily basis, they are hardly ever seen together in television programmes, too.
There are drama series for Malays with an all-Malay cast and drama series in Chinese mainly Mandarin and Cantonese with an all-Chinese cast and very few drama series where all ethnic groups appear together. My personal impression is that each ethnic group is suspicious of the other and fears assimilation, which is not surprising considering such ethnic and religious polarization.
In order to succeed, status planning has to stimulate people to want to learn and use the language which is the object of the promotion efforts, and identify with it so that it may become part of their identity. Quite contrary to this, too often the attitude of official institutions in Malaysia has been over-authoritarian, forcing people to learn Malay rather than making it attractive to them. It seems to me that one of the reasons Chinese minorities in other Southeast Asian countries have integrated so much better is the fact that the official language is made to appear more neutral and inclusive in these other countries.
In Thailand and the Philippines, for example, many Chinese Thais and Filipinos have developed double identities as Thais or Filipinos and Chinese, being proud to be Thai or Filipino citizens belonging to the Chinese minority Suryadinata ; Chan and Tong As long as any ethnic group feels discriminated against, it will be difficult for that ethnic group to want to identify with the culture and language of the group that is perceived as privileged.
Obviously the New Economic Policy and positive discrimination policies were important in that Brought to you by University of Malaya Library Authenticated pcoluzzi yahoo. At this point in time, many feel that people in hardship should get help and be offered opportunities in work, education, etc. It is true that there are still many poor Malays, but there are also poor Indians and Chinese, who also deserve some support and opportunities, e.
Malaysian society is now as divided along ethnic lines as ever, as has been noted again and again see for example Lee ; David ; David and Yee ; Yee and Wong According to the results of research carried out by Jayum : Children of the post-independence era simply do not mix as well as their parents and grandparents did or do.
Neither do the former understand or care enough to understand each other as compared to their parents or grandparents. It can be concluded that, ethnic relations are deteriorating instead of improving despite the many measures to improve ethnic relations promoted by each successive government since the late s.
Jayum , in David and Yee [ ] Yet, such artificially driven division does not need to be there, as competition and conflict between ethnic groups can be kept to a minimum.
A common lingua franca felt as inclusive and neutral by everybody would also contribute to peaceful pluralism and integration. Malay was chosen to be the national language of Malaysia. It is, for example, one of the four official languages of Singapore, together with Mandarin, Tamil and Malay, the latter Brought to you by University of Malaya Library Authenticated pcoluzzi yahoo. English is, however, the only language of inter-ethnic communication in Singapore and this seems to have led to better results than in Malaysia as far as the forging of a common national identity is concerned.
It would be an important element in the creation of a real Malaysian identity, not a Malay one for everybody. This could help the various ethnic groups to get closer to each other. However, forcing people is not the right way, as the present situation clearly shows. The approach to language planning should always be soft, flexible and open minded. The latter is very important.
If non-Bumiputras have to master Malay, Malays also should learn Chinese and Tamil, at least some basics. In addition, knowing a language like Chinese would be a great economic asset for the Malays, too.
As far as religion is concerned, there should be books on Islam as well as books on Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity in Malay. This is actually a reality in Indonesia, where most of the books in bookstores are in Indonesian, and all areas of knowledge are covered, from literature to science and religion.
Considering the importance of the mass media in modern society, Malaysians should be able to enjoy high-quality programmes on different topics in Malay.
Writing on Malay films and television series, Asmah Haji Omar has affirmed: The sophisticated Malaysians are hoping for creations that suit their levels of knowledge and intellectuality. The productions in Malay as seen on the Malaysian TV channels are no doubt entertaining, but on a different level of intellectuality. Asmah Haji Omar It is also important that more films and soap operas are offered in Malay with a mixed cast of actors belonging to different ethnic groups.
That would be an important message for Malaysians, i.
All this, obviously, does not mean that these programmes should replace those already existing in Malay, Chinese and Tamil. Language diversity is very important see Coluzzi 34— On the contrary, programmes in minority languages like Iban or Kadazandusun should also be produced. In a multilingual society everybody should be able to master English and Malay and retain their ethnic languages. Even the present system of National and National-type schools could be retained, but at least efforts should be made to have all ethnic groups share the same premises, so that on top of their school curriculum, they could meet for sport and recreational activities, for example.
This has already been proposed in the form of sekolah wawasan [vision schools], but has been carried out in only five schools in the whole country so far Zuraidah Mohd Don , again on account of fear of encroaching and perceived negative influences on the part of all ethnic groups. Apart from reinforcing the knowledge of Malay among Chinese and Indian students, this would have another very important effect: Young people should be given opportunities for extended interactions with members of all ethnic groups such that this experience would force them to discard stereotypical under- standings and instead forge new understandings based on knowledge acquired through personal observation and experience.
As stated at the beginning, Malaysia is a unique case from many points of view, with more than one third of the total population being considered non-native to the soil, and such a situation requires a great amount of tact and sensibility.
However, it is quite clear that the present situation is making too many people dissatisfied and Malay a language of secondary importance. As explained in the previous section, the key to making Malay attractive is to make it prestigious and useful see Coluzzi on the one hand, and neutral on the other. At the same time the Government should strive to replace the present preferential treatment based on ethnicity with a system based on actual economic needs.
Language planning for modernization: The case of Indonesian and Malaysian. The Hague: Mouton. Asmah Haji Omar. Language planning for unity and efficiency. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya. Malay in its sociocultural context. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Malay as a pluricentric language. In Michael Clyne ed. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. The linguistic scenery in Malaysia.
Language and language situation in Southeast Asia: With a focus on Malaysia. Language planning and use. In Asmah Haji Omar ed. Singapore: Edition Didier Millet. Azirah Hashim. AILA Review Multilingual capital.
London: Battlebridge. Rethinking assimilation and ethnicity: The Chinese in Thailand.
International Migration Review 27 1. Coluzzi, Paolo. Minority language planning and micronationalism in Italy: An analysis of the situation of Friulian, Cimbrian and Western Lombard with reference to Spanish minority languages.
Oxford: Peter Lang. Bath: Foundation for Endangered Languages. Majority and minority language planning in Brunei Darussalam. Language Problems and Language Planning 35 3. Modernity and globalization: Is the presence of English and of cultural products in English a sign of linguistic and cultural imperialism?
Results of a study conducted in Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 33 2.
Oceanic Linguistics 52 2. Linguistic Landscape. An International Journal 1 3. International Journal of the Sociology of Language Language planning and social change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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In Maya Khemlani David ed. Social capital and common ground for fostering ethnic relations. Language policies — impact on language maintenance and teaching: Focus on Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines. The Linguistics Journal September, special edition. Ethnic relations and nation building: The way forward. Perceptions of ethnic otherness: A study of Malaysian children.
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Teaching language is expected to meet the needs of society by learning the language components, such as grammar convention, vocabulary, and pronunciation. However, teaching Chinese for young children should also have a level of student proficiency. Materials should be reduced; it only focuses on teaching, listening, speaking and vocabulary. By focusing on these, the students are seemingly not confused and overburdened .
Learning Chinese in early childhood education has different ways in the learning process and must be adjusted to the ability of each child. The problem in this research is how Chinese teaching methods should be used in early childhood education in Jakarta with a background of students who have no Chinese language base. The purpose of this research is to know the effective teaching method used in early childhood education class in Jakarta. In a specific term, Chinese means Mandarin and Chinese that are similar standard languages based on spoken language Beifanghua.
Mandarin is spoken language in Republic of China; meanwhile Chinese is national spoken language in Taiwan. The former is usually called Huayu, as one of four national languages in Singapore . It then becomes a base of Mandarin and Chinese. Beifanghua has more speakers than other languages dan consists of various types.
Though Chinese people consider various spoken language of Chinese as one single language, the types of those spoken languages are equals as various types of old Roman. Chinese Language is the language with the most speakers over the world.
It is also as official language in China. By the growth of world population, Chinese language is then used in many countries around the world. As the matter of that fact that in this digital era, China has become a center of trend and trade over the world, Chinese language proficiency can be one of ability in international business.
As a consequence, teaching Chinese at schools in Indonesia has become trending. Chinese language classes are not only opened for elementary schools, secondary schools and university education but early childhood education as well. Teaching Chinese language for young children, of course, brings different process of learning which is met to the student ability. The age under 5 years old is the critical period in developing character and personality.
In addition, children also develop their intelligences before they get 5 years old . They have a great potential and intelligence. However, most parents and teachers can only teach a little to them.
Actually, they can be not only easy to learn. They have high curiosity and ability to get information. People are less attention to education for young children. Indeed, they have million cells in their brains and have a good ability, and have a good memory .
As a result, education that focuses on building values of humanity, development of intelligence, character, moral and love in general is highly necessary since early childhood. As a consequence, early childhood education cannot be neglected and abandoned. Moreover, it should be started from a very beginning time when they are still in pregnancy period . Early childhood education is to help development of children physically and mentally outside home environment before taking elementary schools.
Its objectives are to develop attitude, skill and creation needed by children to make adjustment in their environment and to support next development stages. Units of early childhood education can be kindergarten, play group, day care, and others mandated by ministry of education.
Surveillance and development are also held by ministry of education.
The pronunciation is a certain way of producing sound that emphasizes the sound received by the listener . The Chinese teaching method of pronunciation in early childhood education differs from adult teaching, and the use of alphabet is not used. The use of Chinese language teaching methods as appropriate foreign language according consists of five methods: 1.
Learning vocabulary using distributive method is more suitable for Indonesia because the background of students is not familiar with Chinese language . The process of learning to teach Chinese for early childhood education is better by using teaching methods that songs and poetry because this methods can attract students to study .
Methods The method used in this research was participant classroom action research, in which was conducted for one semester, from 10 January to 30 June at KSPA Kindergarten Jakarta. The concept of classroom action research in this research using Kurt Lewin methods is in a cycle consisting of four steps: 1 planning, 2 action or acting, 3 observing, and 4 reflection Lewin, The respondents were 20 kindergarten students of 10 girls and 10 boys between 4 - 7 years old and 2 teachers.
The research method used was descriptive and qualitative that describes the situations that occurred in the classroom when the learning was going on with one kind method. The data collected were from observation, questionnaire, and interview. Data measurement done in this study employed Likert-scale format, as follows. Results The first step is planning: the Chinese teaching for young children focused more on the introduction and familiarization to the language.
However, the introduction still paid attention on grammar rules in composing sentences. Grammar rules were not explicitly taught to the students.