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As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no civil engineering drawing - Board of Intermediate Education, AP. Commencing with the fundamentals of drawing and continuing with draughting practice and conventions, this textbook emphasizes detailing, rather than the. This Section contains Online books on:Free Civil Engineering Drawing Books Download | Ebooks online downloadable e-books downloads zip chm rar.
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TR This command is used for trimming a geometry. SC This command is used to change the scale of an object. B This command is used for creating a block, the properties of the block can be defined using the block definition window.
X This command can be used to explode objects like Polyline to simple lines, an array or a block to a simple geometry etc. F This command can be used to add rounded corners to the sharp edges of the geometry, these round corners are also called fillets. CHA This command can be used to add slant edges to the sharp corners, these slant edges are also called chamfers. LA This command can be used to open layer properties manage palette which is a tool for creating and managing layers in a drawing.
Keyboard Shortcut Keys Keyboard shortcuts or hotkeys are the shortest and quickest way of activating some of the common AutoCAD operations or commands. In this list I have included some of the most frequently used and useful keyboard shortcuts. Press it again to reset default AutoCAD interface. You can use this palette to modify most of the properties of the object too. You can also use PR command to open the property palette. If for some reason your command line is hidden from the drawing area, then use this keyboard shortcut to bring it back.
You can use this keyboard shortcut to make blocks quickly without going through the create block window. You can press this shortcut key multiple times to undo many actions. You can activate or deactivate status bar icons using keyboard shortcuts, commands or by clicking on its respective icon.
In this section, I have listed the most frequently used status bar options along with their properties and uses. F7 This status bar tool will toggle the visibility of background grid which is often visible in your drawing area.
F9 Toggle Snap mode, when snap mode is active AutoCAD cursor will jump to specific points in the drawing area which is defined in snap mode. DYNMODE By default the value of this system variable is set to -3 which keeps it off you change this system variable to 3 to make dynamic input active. Dynamic input allows you to add information dynamically on the cursor tooltip. When ortho mode is on you can make lines either horizontally or vertically only. With polar tracking active you can make lines inclined to any angle which is defined in the polar tracking increment angle.
You can also toggle between different isoplanes using F5 function key.
Using this option you can track snap points of geometries like center, midpoint, endpoint etc and make geometries with their reference. F3 One the most important status bar toggles. This option allows you to make precise AutoCAD drawings. The default value of this system variable is OFF which keeps the lineweight display off you can change its value to ON to keep lineweight visible in the drawing area.
You change the value of this system variable to 1 to make transparency visible or 0 if you want to make it invisible. When the value of this system variable is set to 2, an overlapping icon and a menu containing a list of overlapping objects appear and you can select the required object from this list. If you set the value of this system variable to 1, only the overlap icon appears not the menu.
You can turn this off by changing the value of this system variable to 0. F6 Dynamic UCS can be activated or deactivated using this function key. From a teacher's perspective the challenge lies in teaching SMM based taking-off processes to 1. Automatic quantity take-off for estimating.
It includes a variety of trades such as clearing site, top soil removing, excavation, concrete work and masonry works. But estimators with more experience using spreadsheets might enter a simple formula in cell F2 to automatically calculate the extended price.
For further details into the quantity take-off matter but also for all the various matters discussed, it is advisable to study the corresponding printed book. This book provides a thorough understanding of the general Quantity Take-Off Sheets The following are the measurement forms and their associated Bills of Quantities.
The main thing to consider in preparing a taking off template is to know basic Excel commands, and to be able to use formula and links.
Substructure taking-off involves all measurement work up to and including the damp-proof course. Figure 2. No responsibility for loss or damage caused to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of the material contained in this guide can be accepted by the Africa Association of Quantity Surveyors. Easily associate a drawing entity to a Price List item creating a dynamic union between the drawing and the BoQ. Take appropriate measures to protect existing monuments.
The modern quantity surveyor. The quantity take-off will have increasing complexity as the design progresses from early concept through final design. The rules have been written to provide a standard set of measurement rules that are understandable by all those involved in a construction project. It is on the aspect of measurement that this book concentrates. From the designing of the project to the initial bid, Mensura Genius ensures the pricing and cost estimation.
The below is the example of a footing plan. They are in Microsoft Excel format which most are familiar with. If the Quantity Takeoff. Geodetic surveying: is that branch of surveying, which takes into account the true shape of the earth spheroid.
The timesing column, which gives the factor of multiplication for the measurements in the dimension column. From a good Taking Off list a quantity surveyor can quantify dimensions and later create a bill of quantities.
Whilst the importance of this expanded role cannot be emphasised enough, success in carrying it out stems from the traditional ability of the quantity surveyor to measure and value. Further, all the calculations are done depending upon these values. Taking off Abbreviations a.
Ideally, a separate meeting should be held with the Design Team to review the Cost Plan to verify the assumptions and basis of pricing. Depending on the shape or design of a building the method of taking out quantities also varies.
The followings are general rule to follow when preparing a template. Masonry work, and 4. An almost accurate quantity takeoff sheet helps the architects, engineers and contractors to win any bid. If possible, same group of quantity surveyors should be arranged to take all works from inception to completion of the project. Surveying Jobs. However, in order to fully understand and appreciated the potential problems in the measurement process a thorough knowledge of measurement conventions is essential.
The approaches to teaching quantity surveying measurement described in this paper are those adopted in the Bachelor of Construction Management BCM program in the University of Newcastle, Australia. The next step is applying a pricing list to the itemized quantities to generate a cost estimate. In performing construction surveying, preparation is a major part of the operation. II Areas shall be measured to the nearest 0.
Traditional taking off uses dimension paper which is made of a series of columns. Civil Engineer's Illustrated Sourcebook. Civil Engineering Formulas. Engineering Materials HandBook.
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